Maternity Shoot - Jewanni It was a great pleasure to have done this maternity shoot in the comforts of my studio. Jewanni and I had a few ideas of how we were going to go about her shoot and what she wanted. Not all of what I suggested was going to work for her, and that didn't matter, as we still got some amazing results. She is a fun person to interact with, both in the studio and off set, which is a really good thing, as both the photographer and model can really express themselves and be themselves, without being a bundle of nerves. It makes the shoot more fun and less work. The best time to do a maternity shoot is from six months until term. I was really fortunate to have completed this shoot in Jewanni's last month, only to find that baby arrived sooner than expected! Jewanni gave birth 3 days later to a healthy baby girl, congrats, and look out for the follow up baby shoot in due course! She is already proving to be a great mom! My gear I used for this shoot was a Nikon D800e which is great as a studio camera at 36.3mp, 2x SB910 AF Speedlight Flash with some natural light filtering through into the studio and 2x Elinchrom Translucent Umbrellas against a white backdrop to achieve the results in the images below. Click on the images below to view an enlarged single image. All my images are available for purchase as prints. Digital images can be used under license agreement. Should you wish to purchase or license my images, please click here for more information, so I can assist you with your needs. Should you wish to book a Maternity Shoot, please click here.
The Wonderful World of Rolleiflex TLR Photography: Street Photography By Dan Wagner | There are several schools of thought regarding whether or not a Rolleiflex TLR is a good camera for street photography. On the negative side, the exposures per roll are limited to 12, the vintage design often attracts attention, and it takes longer to advance the film to the next frame. On the positive side, the camera can be operated stealthily by shooting from the waist and/or aiming the camera perpendicular to the direction you’re facing; the 120 negative is much larger than its 35mm counterpart; and the leaf shutter is quieter and has less vibration than a camera with a moving mirror or shutter curtains. More important than which camera is used, is how it’s used, and how comfortable a photographer is using it. While you may miss a few shots shooting with a Rolleiflex TLR, you will savor the ones that were caught that much more. Once a photographer is familiar with the operation of the Rolleiflex TLR, it’s time to put the camera through its paces and shoot some beautiful photographs. For street photography, a good method is to set the focus to 10 feet and the f/stop and shutter speed to a combination suitable for shooting in shade or sunlight. As you move from sunlit to shady areas, you should adjust the settings as required. By always having suitable exposure settings, a photographer will be ready to respond to photo opportunities at a moment’s notice. When you want to compose a tighter shot, it’s a simple matter to rotate the focusing knob to six or seven feet. Of course, if time permits, it’s usually preferable to focus in the traditional manner of looking through the viewfinder. And when you’re close to a subject, some photographers will appreciate moving the camera slightly forward or backward to find focus as opposed to moving the focusing knob—it’s a matter of preference. In writings and interviews, legendary photographers such as Henri Cartier-Bresson, Weegee, and others often discuss the virtues of this simple approach. These universal principles are easily applied to most cameras and formats, not just the Rolleiflex TLR. General Street Photography Strategies In urban areas, it’s advantageous to walk against the flow of foot traffic to facilitate photographing the faces of passersby. While rear views can sometimes tell a story, they’re seldom as compelling as frontal shots that include faces. Additionally, by choosing which side of the street to walk on, one is also choosing whether a person will be back or front lit, and if they’ll be in shade or open sun—providing, of course, that it’s a sunny day, that the sun is not directly overhead, and that nearby buildings, trees or other obstructions are tall enough to create shade. In areas with tall buildings, you can often find that a pleasing combination of directional and soft light is created by sunlight bouncing from reflective surfaces. One shooting method is to select an area with interesting lighting, choose a camera position with an uncluttered background, and simply wait for interesting subjects to walk into the frame. Although this method can yield good photos, it’s seldom as fruitful as simply being ready for and responding in a less predetermined manner. To increase the opportunities for catching elusive and fleeting moments, scan fifty or more feet ahead of where you are walking, for people with interesting faces and for moments in the making. Something as simple as two friends meeting in front of a restaurant can result in an emotionally charged photo opportunity. Part of the reward of street photography is improving one’s skills at accurately anticipating how people will behave, how moments will transition, where to position the camera, and how to conduct oneself to capture these meaningful slice-of-life vignettes. Many photographers are understandably reticent, at first, to point a camera in a stranger’s direction. However, with practice and a smile, it is not only possible to become comfortable with photographing strangers, but in many cases it is easy to engage in pleasant conversation with them. In fact, with their quirky, vintage appearance, the Rolleiflex TLRs are often conversation starters themselves, and can even elicit requests from strangers to shoot their photo. When considering the importance of telling stories with facial expressions, never rule out the value of expressions that run the gamut of human emotion—even an expression of discomfort can tell a memorable story. Photographer Richard Avedon was a master at this, and would often peer through his Rolleiflex TLR for awkward minutes until a subject’s “public face” fell to reveal who they really were. This is not to suggest that a photographer shouldn’t be aware of and considerate of how others may feel when photographed. However, when photographers display a sincere desire to elevate a subject or an event, to communicate their vision, and to create art, this sincerity will be apparent to others and not only put them at ease, but enlist them to the cause, as well. Although a delicate matter, it can be done. The Rolleiflex Experience While shooting with a Rolleiflex TLR or any TLR is relatively easy to do, like other artistic endeavors, it takes years of dedication to tap its full potential. For those who have never shot film, the best part of the process is often wondering what the photo will look like when it is developed, and whether or not it will meet or exceed expectations. The biggest adjustment for those who have only worked with digital cameras is that it is not possible to review a shot on the spot after it has been taken. However, with practice, it is possible to envision what the photo will look like and to make the necessary exposure and other adjustments that will realize your vision prior to releasing the shutter. Having a photo in one’s head and capturing it with a camera is a rewarding experience, and examining the finished result for flaws is an excellent way to learn and improve your skills. Rolleiflex Ergonomics Rolleiflex TLRs were designed with all the controls in the perfect location for waist-level shooting. Looking down, it’s easy to see the two, tiny windows displaying the f/stop and shutter speed, which are adjusted by thumb dials on either side of the lenses. On the left is a robust focusing knob with exposure-meter needle, depth-of-field scale, film spool releases, and filter compensation scale that corresponds to the factor number printed on filters. On the right is the film advance/shutter cocking lever, which advances the film when rotated forward, and cocks the shutter when rotated backward. The lower right corner of the camera features the shutter release and shutter lock, while the top right has the self-timer/flash synch selector, and the bottom left has a locking synch outlet. All in all, the ergonomics are easy to understand and quickly become second nature. Rolleiflex Viewfinders: Tricks and Tips Because waist-level viewfinders don’t have prisms, photographers have to become used to viewing their subjects laterally reversed. The stationary mirror behind the taking lens allows for proper vertical viewing, but doesn’t correct for the horizontal. Things can get confusing, however, when trying to follow a moving subject, because it is instinctive to pan in the same direction in which the subject is moving. However, when using a Rolleiflex TLR to challenge yourself, hone skills, or as a way to shake things up and shoot in a different way, each difficulty or obstacle can be viewed as beneficial. Newcomers to the world of Rolleiflex TLR’s often report having difficulty holding the camera level. My feeling is that when you don’t think too much about holding the camera level, the shots come out perfect. It simply takes a little getting used to. Of course, shooting with a focusing screen that has a grid, or looking for objects such as buildings, curbs, or trees can aid in keeping the camera level. One of the most popular uses for a waist-level finder is shooting ground-level shots, since it is possible to see through the finder without having to lie down on the ground, as with an eye-level finder. However, Rolleiflex TLR waist-level finders can approximate an eye-level finder with eye portals on the front and rear panels that function as a sports finder. While not optimal, with practice this function can prove useful in situations where obstructions prevent waist-level shooting. The advantages of shooting from the solar plexus is that people will look more “heroic,” as the horizon line and related background areas behind a subject will be shifted higher. For shooting from a higher vantage point, try holding the camera above the head while looking up to compose and focus. One can see this technique demonstrated by none other than Fred Astaire in the movie “Funny Face”—a must–see for any Rolleiflex TLR shooter. The Rolleiflex 2.8f, 3.5f, and some later 2.8e and 3.5e models have removable viewfinders. This offers the option of shooting with a chimney finder, and 90-degree or 45-degree eye-level pentaprism, which are heavy but allow photographers to view subjects without the image appearing laterally reversed. Proper Exposure with Rolleiflex 2.8f and 3.5f Cameras The Rolleiflex 2.8f and 3.5f models have removable waist-level finders, with many having coupled exposure meters, as well. The coupling feature means that when one changes the ISO setting, filter compensation dial, shutter speed or aperture, it will affect the light measurement. This is different from earlier, non-coupled meters, used by photographers to obtain an exposure value number they can then use to set the proper exposure. Unfortunately, most Rolleiflexes are more than 50 years old, and their selenium cell meters no longer function or are inaccurate. Even if the exposure meter works, it’s quite easy to learn how to do without it. Simply use the f/16 rule of thumb, also known as the “Sunny 16 Rule,” which states that in bright sunlight the correct exposure will be f/16 with a shutter speed of 1/film ISO. Therefore, with 400-speed film, set the camera to f/16 and 1/400-second. One of the best reasons for learning to set good exposures without a meter is to prepare for shooting rapidly unfolding action sequences that occur in low light, shade, or sun. An example might be at a sporting event that takes place in open and heavily treed areas. Having to spend time taking exposure readings could result in many missed shots. Depth of Field One disadvantage of a TLR, as compared to an SLR in terms of subject viewing, is that you can’t look through the taking lens and see the depth of field for a specific aperture, or see the effect of certain filters such as polarizers. Fortunately, the TLR’s focus knob has a white band that widens as the lens opening is reduced, and that corresponds to the distance scale on the part of the knob closest to the camera. Distances in the white area will be in focus and those outside this area will be out of focus. A photographer would thus focus on the closest and farthest parts of a scene they wanted to be sharp, note the distances and focus on a spot approximately 1/3 in. So, if the near distance was 10' and the far distance 40', you would set the focus to 20' and rotate the aperture dial until the white band included everything between 10 and 40'. When calculating depth of field, bear in mind that: Because the distance scale on some TLRs might require calibration, it’s a good idea to check your scale for accuracy with a tape measure. With practice, one will become skilled at guessing subject distances accurately, and knowing what distance is required for a portrait, full-length, group shot, or landscape. Generally, 10' is a good working distance for a full-length shot. During street shooting, or any photography involving moving subjects, and when shooting quickly is a necessity, the ability to pre-focus can make or break a shot. The theory is that the longer one fiddles with focusing, the more stale a given moment becomes, along with the likelihood a subject will appear self-conscious. Therefore, shooting quickly and accurately is vital. With time, one can shoot candid portraits without the subject being aware of your presence. Using a Polarizing Filter The standard procedure for using a polarizing filter is to look through the filter with the naked eye while rotating the front ring until the desired polarizing effect is achieved. Simply view the scene to be photographed through the filter, rotate the front ring until the desired effect is achieved, note the number on the top of the filter, install the filter, and rotate the ring until the notated number is on top. While this might not be as fast as using a polarizing filter with an SLR, it works quite well. One thing to consider is that many vintage Rolleiflex polarizing filters, which go by the name Rolleipol, suffer from damage such as waviness and fading. The same is often true of dark red filters. Good ones can be sourced, but it may take some effort. The numbers around the perimeter of a Rolleipol are from 1-18. Fortunately, Heliopan still makes bayonet-mounted filters in several sizes, including Bay III size for the 2.8f, and Bay II for the 3.5f model cameras. Using ND and Yellow Filters Many photographers appreciate the benefits of shooting with just one film sensitivity, such as ISO 400, which is good for many low-light situations. The downside is that when shooting with ISO 400 in bright sunlight, the working aperture of f/16 may result in more depth of field than the photographer wants. For this reason, it’s a good practice to carry a 2x or .6 ND (Neutral Density) filter. By using this ND filter, the effective film speed is reduced to ISO 100 and the photographer can shoot at f/8.0, an aperture 2 stops wider than f/16. An alternative to using an ND filter for photographers favoring black-and-white photography is to use a 1.5 Yellow filter, which has the advantage of darkening a blue sky, while also reducing the effective film speed from ISO 400 to 160. The filter factor number on the filter housing matches the number displayed on the filter compensation dial on the bottom left side of the camera. Simply rotate the dial to the number on the filter and the coupled exposure meter will adjust the exposure accordingly. For instance, the number 1 would result in an exposure increase of 1 stop, which correlates to the exposure decrease of 1 stop from using the filter. To achieve the same result when computing exposure with a separate meter, simply adjust the ISO setting by 1 stop. Fear of Flaring Rolleiflex lenses are single-coated and therefore prone to flare—so don’t forget to use a lens hood. By the way, a lens hood will also serve as a protective bumper and help shield the lens from light rain. The benefit of not being multi-coated is that by reducing maximum density, the lens creates an illusion of greater shadow detail. Flare factors to consider include the following. In 99 percent of circumstances, flare and the accompanying lowering of contrast and subject edge detail are issues to be avoided. For artistic purposes, there are occasions when a photographer will want to embrace the fear of flare, especially in strongly backlit situations, to produce cool and dramatic effects. At smaller lens openings, the five aperture blades will yield pentagon-shaped flare that is easily enhanced during printing. Flash Photography For flash usage, the leaf shutter will synch with electronic flash at all speeds, which on a Rolleiflex 2.8f or 3.5f is 1/500 of a second. To trigger a flash, simply connect a synch cord from the flash to the synch outlet on the bottom left of the front of the camera and set the flash synch lever on the upper right to X for electronic or M for bulb flash. The synch outlet on a Rolleiflex TLR has a lever that will lock when used with a Rolleiflex-specific synch cord. Small flash units may be attached to an optional third-party cold shoe that is connected to the bayonet mount on the taking lens, held with a bracket screwed to the tripod mounting screw underneath the camera or Rolleifix quick release, or handheld. The benefit of shooting with a handheld flash is that a photographer can aim the light in more directions. Summary Shooting film with a vintage Rolleiflex TLR is a great way to return to or learn the basics of photography. The knowledge acquired from film shooting and developing can be readily applied to digital work, and vice versa. And for photographers interested in building a distinctive body of work, shooting with a specific camera and format for several years has a good chance of producing the desired result. If it’s fun, challenging, and feels right, you’re on the right track. The Wonderful World of Rolleiflex TLR Photography is a three-part series. If you missed Part 1, Buying a Used Rolleiflex, or Part 2, Loading Film, just click the links.
The Wonderful World of Rolleiflex TLR Photography: Buying a Used Rolleiflex TLR By Dan Wagner What makes a Rolleiflex TLR so special? Many things. To start, TLR stands for twin lens reflex. “Twin” because there are two lenses. And reflex means that the photographer looks through the lens to view the reflected image of an object or scene on the focusing screen. Photographers also look through SLRs, or single lens reflex cameras. One of the differences between the two is that the SLR is held at eye level, and the TLR is held at chest level while the photographer looks through a “waist-level” finder. Another difference is that most SLRs are oriented a horizontal format and must be rotated to shoot vertically. TLRs, however, are 6 x 6 cm square format cameras, so if a photographer wants a horizontal or vertical photo, they will shoot square and crop later. Since a 6 x 6 cm square is roughly three times larger than a 35mm film image, little is lost in terms of detail from cropping. That withstanding, most people are drawn to TLRs because they love shooting with a square format camera, and find it fun. Photos by Dan Wagner Rolleiflex TLRs Are Fun and Peculiar The advantages of shooting from the waist, or more accurately, the solar plexus, is that people will look more “heroic” as the horizon line and related background areas behind a subject will be shifted higher. And for seasoned photographers, shooting from a new perspective can be liberating and inspiring. Besides being fun to use, watching someone shoot with a Rolleiflex TLR for the first time is comical, as the mirror reverses the viewfinder image from left to right, frequently causing the photographer to point the camera the wrong way. This is because when one moves the camera to the right or left, the subject seems to move in the opposite direction. It’s also difficult, at first, to hold the camera level. Fortunately, with a little practice, both of these issues are easily overcome.In the case of a Rolleiflex TLR, you look through the upper or “viewing” lens. The lower lens, which is referred to as the “taking” lens, is situated in front of the film plane, and is the lens that captures the image. Inside this lens are the shutter and aperture blades. Unlike an SLR camera, the TLR has a stationary mirror, not a moving one. The absence of a moving mirror has the advantage of lower vibration for slower handheld shooting and a viewfinder that doesn’t go dark during the moment of exposure. By allowing the photographer to view a subject the instant the image is recorded, the photographer will know if the desired image has been captured. It’s also quieter than the sound of an SLR firing.Rolleiflex TLR Cameras Are Built SolidlyA major appeal of Rolleiflex TLR cameras is that they are so well made. Constructed primarily of metal and glass and covered with a luxurious leather skin, Rolleiflex cameras are solid, and feel good in the hands. The precise manner in which parts fit together speaks to exacting craftsmanship. And it’s this manufacturing skill that makes a 50-year-old Rolleiflex feel relevant and demand to be picked up, appreciated, and used. The worst fate for any camera, let alone a Rolleiflex, is to become a dusty shelf queen. One example of how well-designed these cameras are would be the fit of the removable film door. On vintage cameras manufactured to less demanding tolerances, black foam inserts were used to keep film doors light-tight. But on Rolleiflexes, the film door fits so precisely that there is no need for foam liners—the metal-on-metal fabrication alone assures that the door remains light-tight.Purchasing A Used Rolleiflex TLRThere are numerous concerns and things to look for when buying a used Rolleiflex TLR. Because the first Rolleiflex was introduced in 1929, and the popular 2.8f and 3.5f models were made more than 50 years ago, finding one in pristine condition can be difficult. The most important consideration is the condition of the lenses, especially the lower taking lens. Scratches, which some sellers will describe as cleaning marks, fungus, excessive interior dust particles sometimes described as haze, and balsam separation of lens elements from aging cement, are the main problems to look for.Other factors, while not necessarily deal breakers, are also important. These factors include the presence of oil on the aperture blades, transport mechanism gearing problems, alignment of metal bellows, shutter speed accuracy, and more. Odds are that the camera you purchase will need a cleaning, lubrication, and adjustment (CLA). The main reason for this is that most cameras, especially vintage cameras such as the Rolleiflex TLR, were engineered with the expectation that they would be serviced at regular intervals. In addition, lubricating oils were never meant to last a lifetime, and over time will become sticky and impede camera functions. Simply leaving a camera in a hot car for too long can break down the lubricants and cause problems. Therefore, buyers should be prepared to spend an additional $300 or more to have their newly purchased camera serviced. Photography-related sites with for sale/wanted forums, eBay, and camera shops with used departments, such as the Used Department at B&H, are good places to find your Rolleiflex.When buying a Rolleiflex TLR: Always weigh seller representations such as “the shutter sounds good at all speeds,” “the lenses have a few minor cleaning marks, dust, haze, separation—but they have no effect on image quality,” “my friend’s a photographer and says the camera works great,” and “I don’t know anything about cameras, but this one is nice,” with trepidation. Seller representations that inspire confidence are, “I will supply paperwork for CLA performed on specific date,” “please e-mail for larger photos with additional details,” and “returns may be made within 14 days.” If possible, run a test roll of Tri-X or other 120 film through the camera to check the transport mechanism. All else being equal, a camera that comes with a neck strap, case, hood, and other accessories is preferable to one that doesn’t. A neck strap, case, hood and a few filters can easily add up to an additional expenditure of $300 or more. Exercising a shutter at different speeds can, in some cases, help distribute lubrication where it’s needed and result in more accurate shutter speeds. And exercising the shutter from time to time between rolls, while a good practice, is only a temporary fix for a camera in need of a CLA. Properly functioning Rolleiflex 2.8f cameras generally sell for between $900 and $1,500, with finer examples commanding a premium. 3.5f models can run about $200 less. Both lenses come in single-coated Planar and Xenotar versions and produce sharp photos with beautiful rendering. Models referred to as “white face” have serial numbers printed on the silver metal bordering the lenses to the right of the taking lens. Because white face cameras represent the final f-model run, and are 10 years or so newer, they go for the highest prices, which often exceed $2,500. When deciding between a 2.8f versus 3.5f and white face versus non-white face camera, always let the camera’s condition be the deciding factor. Telltales to how a camera was treated may be revealed by wear to the leather panels on the camera, wear to the leather case, missing paint, dents, and worst of all, damage to the optics.Servicing A Rolleiflex TLRWhen considering where to have your Rolleiflex serviced, be sure to examine the repairman’s reputation. Fortunately, there are superb Rolleiflex repairmen, such as Harry Fleenor, in California, and Krikor Maralian, whose service is called Krimar, in New Jersey, both of whom have websites describing their services. Best of all, Fleenor and Krimar were factory trained by Rolleiflex, have a half-century of experience, use specially machined repair tools and maintain an inventory of original replacement parts.When having a CLA performed on a Rolleiflex, it’s a good time to install a brighter focusing screen. Harry Fleenor offers this service, and while it’s easy to install a focus screen, Fleenor will check and adjust the focus to accommodate any variances introduced by the new screen and align focusing mechanisms to factory tolerances. This is important for wide-open shooting, where depth of focus is at a minimum and fractions of an inch can make or break critical focus. Another optional service is camera leather replacement. Companies such as Aki-Asahi.com and cameraleather.com sell easy-to-install leather for Rolleiflex TLRs and other cameras. And the new leather will improve both the grip and cosmetics. Finally, if a seller claims that their Rolleiflex TLR had a CLA, there should always be a sticker with the repairman’s name in one of the film spool chambers.Viewfinder ChoicesThe Rolleiflex 2.8f, 3.5f, and some later 2.8e and 3.5e models have removable viewfinders. This offers the option of shooting with a chimney finder, which is hard to come by unless one is using a Baier adapter with a Hasselblad or other third-party chimney. If opting for a Baier finder, one will probably need a diopter for the finder they select. Baier’s website offers info on this. Best of all, the Baier adapter cosmetically matches the Rolleiflex aesthetic. By the way, some Hasselblad or Kiev finders have cold shoes for mounting a small flash, or even an exposure meter or other shoe-mounted accessory.Other finders are available, such as 90-degree or 45-degree eye-level pentaprism, which are heavy but allow photographers to view subjects without the image appearing reversed horizontally. However, make sure that any vintage finder with a prism is free of balsam separation. And if there’s an eyecup, most likely the rubber will be deteriorating.Another advantage of Rolleiflexes with removable finders is the ability to clean the mirror behind the viewing lens easily and quickly replace the focusing screen with a brighter one for improved focusing, especially under low-light conditions. Also indispensible for critical focusing is the flip-up magnifier located on the underside of a waist-level finder’s lid. Other options include: Magnifiers with diopter correction for photographers who wear glasses. Many chimney finders have adjustable eyepieces for easier focusing, as well. Brighter focusing screens, which generally cost more than two hundred dollars, are easily scratched, and should be handled only by the edges. Focusing screens are available with or without grid lines, with a horizontal or diagonal split-image center rangefinder, or plain. Because one of the beauties of focusing with a Fresnel lens is watching the image “pop” into focus, and because a central rangefinder can be distracting, many photographers opt for a plain focusing screen, or one with a grid. The grid is, of course, helpful for keeping horizontal lines level. Using A Smartphone Exposure AppIf you buy a Rolleiflex with a non-functioning exposure meter, the options are to use your knowledge to set exposures manually, work with a small digital camera set on manual to take readings—or even better—simply install a light meter App on your smart phone. The App will enable you to select your film sensitivity and an f/stop or shutter speed accurately. This App can function as a spot meter by dragging the cursor over different parts of the scene. As the cursor is moved, you will see the image get lighter or darker, because the meter is calculating the exposure for the area under the cursor. When the best compromise between light and dark areas is reached, the displayed settings are the ones to go with. What’s nice about this method of exposure selection is that it gives a visual representation that makes adjusting for backlit, low lit, and other tricky situations fast, reliable, and easy to visualize and understand. So, even if you’re lucky enough to score a Rolleiflex with a perfect meter, you may still prefer to work with the App.Leather Neck StrapsAs with any handheld camera, there are numerous ways to set up and shoot with a Rolleiflex TLR. The first step is to adjust the neck strap to an ideal length that keeps the camera at a comfortable height where it may be quickly raised to take a photo. Sadly, due to age, the leather on most original Rolleiflex neck straps will be brittle, cracked, and in need of replacement. When replacing the leather, reuse the alligator clips that attach to strap lugs on either side of the camera. These clips are spring loaded, and offer a connection that is secure, yet easy to quickly disconnect.Because the clips bend outward and away from the camera, when a photographer lifts the camera, the neck strap will fall to the sides instead of getting in the way. Thanks to details like this, Rolleiflex TLRs earned their reputation for being superbly engineered. To replace the leather on the neck strap, drill out the rivets on the alligator clips, insert a fresh piece of leather of the same width, and install new rivets. For a professional result, one can bring the alligator clips to a leather repair or saddle shop, such as Schatzlein in Minneapolis, Minnesota—ask for Gary. Leather strap options include: Adjustable or non-adjustable straps. The benefit of a non-adjustable strap is that there is no excess material. However, the downside will be that it will most likely only fit the intended wearer. By including the buckle hardware, straps with the same adjustability as the original can be ordered. For a nominal amount of money, a matching neck pad can be made, as well. Another option is to attach connectors to the alligator clips for use with other straps. Pros And Cons Of Rolleiflex TLR CasesOne commonly sought Rolleiflex TLR accessory is the ubiquitous Ever-Ready case. These attractive cases were made with brown leather, burgundy felt interiors, and were stitched together with thread. Like the neck straps, they are often in need of repair. However, with the cases, it is the thread that often needs replacing, not the leather. Unfortunately, it is almost impossible to find a shop willing to spend hours re-stitching a case.This is a simple do-it-yourself task. The reason it’s simple is that the holes are already there. Just buy a roll of suitable thread, some sturdy needles, and replace the old thread with new. To make the job easier, keep the leather pieces properly aligned by only removing a small amount of the worn thread at a time.Ironically, while Rolleiflex Ever-Ready cases are nice to look at, they’re not very practical for shooting. The problem is that with only 12 exposures per roll, too much time will be wasted removing and reinstalling the camera in the case. Therefore, for the sake of practicality, most shooters will either leave the case at home or use a small camera bag. Case options include: Rolleiflex manufactured an all-metal, copper colored case for use in humid, wet tropical climates, called the Tropical. This case came with a desiccant cartridge to absorb moisture and a leather strap that attached with a hole-and-slit method instead of alligator clips. One of the best cases for shooting in rainy weather is a locking, clear plastic bag. Simply make two slits for the neck strap and a hole for the taking lens. Attaching the bayonet lens hood after making this hole ensures a tight connection. While not waterproof, the bag takes up almost no space and can make it possible to shoot in light rain. If you go this route, be sure to bring lens-cleaning supplies and a few paper towels to wipe off your camera. “The Wonderful World of Rolleiflex TLR Photography” is a three-part series. Please click for Part 2, “Loading Film,” and Part 3, “Street Photography.”
The Power of a Print I am constantly blown away by the power of what we do with light and the little black box that captures it. Each day, we arm ourselves with the latest and greatest cameras, lenses, speedlights, reflectors, tripods, and other photographic accessories. We create. When the shoot is over we return to our computers with memory cards full of vision and inspiration. We download our creative triumphs. We back them up. We tweak them. We edit them. We retouch them. We post and share them on social media. We email them to the client. Do we ever print them? Exciting stuff capturing images! But when was the last time you printed one? It’s not a Photograph Until It’s a Print I remember in the earlier days of film when everything got printed. Good or bad. Overexposed or underexposed. Didn’t matter. You got to the end of the roll and you got your prints. You brought them home and some, if not most of them went into an album. CNA used to have the booboo bin, where you only paid for the prints you wanted. Once in a while something really awesome came along and it got printed again, this time bigger so it could be framed and put on the wall. Prints were physical, tangible proof of a memory. A moment in time. If you were a professional there were contact sheets. Then proofs. Then prints. Much of what we do today as professionals is handled electronically, but even as professional photographers, each and every one of us shoots for ourselves once in a while. Zanzibar, A1 Print Above The Fireplace The Print Take a minute and try estimating how many gigabytes or terabytes worth of images you have stored on your phone, your tablet, your hard drives, and your cloud storage combined. Now think about how many of them you have actually ever held, printed in your hands. How many of them have you ever looked at from further away than the distance between your eyes and your monitor? Zanzibar When digital photography first took hold, “nothing beats the look of film,” was a common refrain among the skeptics. At the time they were right. But when today’s digital cameras are paired with great print labs, the results can be pretty damn amazing. You may be editing on an incredible monitor, but you’re still only looking at your stuff constrained from about two feet away. If you want the most solid indicator of just how good that shot is, get it printed big and hang it on a wall. Look at it up close. Look at it from the side. Look at it from 3-5m away. Make it the first thing people see when they walk into a room. Zanzibar A1 Print After Collection I know that a lot of you already know what I’m talking about. If you don’t, I challenge you to pick one photo from your archives. Just one to start. Print it big, A1 at least, but preferably bigger A0 or more if you can. Hold it in your hands. Put it on the wall. Step back and tell me I’m wrong. The absolute best way to appreciate the full detail of your image, the life that you breathed into it, and its effect on people who view it is to print it. The bigger the better. ‘If they aren’t photographs, then what are they?” As long as they are happily dancing around inside your devices as ones and zeroes, they are nothing but image files. I realize it might be a matter of semantics and that it sounds like I’m just twisting words around, but what have you really created if it only exists on a hard drive, a timeline, or a photo stream? Two hours after you’ve posted an image on Facebook, it’s been replaced by other content, depending on which forum you posting to. So much of photography has changed so drastically in its relatively short history. The digital age ripped the door off its hinges and changed our industry forever. We can debate the pros and cons of those changes, but one very important thing remains the same. Prints are the great equalizer. There is nowhere to hide. Nothing to interpret or spin. No better judge of your work or legacy. It’s just you and that tangible piece of a memory. Zanzibar, A1 In The Lounge All my images are available for purchase as prints. Digital images can be used under license agreement. Should you wish to purchase or license my images, please click here for more information, so I can assist you with your needs. The power of a printed photograph. Let it speak to you!
Tilt-Shift Lenses And Their Uses Tilt-shift lenses and their uses are primarily for architecture, landscape and portraiture. Tilt-Shift Lenses can also be used creatively to create toy town effects and to increase depth of field in product photography. Nikon launched their current series of Tilt-shift Lenses in January 2008, that being the Nikon PC-E NIKKOR 24mm f/3.5D ED Tilt-Shift Lens, Nikon PC-E Micro-NIKKOR 45mm f/2.8D ED Tilt-Shift Lens and Nikon PC-E Micro-NIKKOR 85mm f/2.8D Tilt-Shift Lens. I currently own the Nikon PC-E NIKKOR 24mm f/3.5D ED Tilt-Shift Lens, Nikon PC-E Micro-NIKKOR 45mm f/2.8D ED Tilt-Shift Lens and Nikon PC-E Micro-NIKKOR 85mm f/2.8D Tilt-Shift Lens, which I use for landscape, portraiture and architectural shoots on both film and digital bodies. The Nikon series all offer a tilt of 8.5° and a shift of 11,5mm for all their lenses. Nikon Tilt-Shift Lenses Canon's range of tilt-shift lenses are very similar in range to Nikon, except that they have a 17mm wide angle. They sport the following lenses: Canon TS-E 17mm f/4L; Canon TS-E 24mm f/3.5 LII Canon TS-E 45mm f/2.8; Canon TS-E 90mm f/2.8. The Canon series all offer a tilt of 6.5° and 12mm shift on the 17mm; 8.5° and a shift of 12mm on the 24mm; 8° and a shift of 11mm on the 45mm and 90mm lenses. I have not had any experience with the Canon lenses. Canon Tilt-Shift Lenses Given the very wide angle images you can get with a 14mm or 16mm lens and the ease of correcting perspective in Photoshop, why bother with this manual focus lens and all the extra effort involved in using it? Tilt-shift photography is commonly misconstrued solely as producing miniature effects in your images. But tilt-shift photography is much more than producing toy towns. These are extremely versatile lenses, and used correctly can produce some really pleasing results. The shallow depth of field effect available from using tilt-shift lenses has become their most popular use. However, creating this ‘toy town’ look is not their only use. Tilt-shift lenses allow you to move the body of the lens in relation to the sensor. The shift movement keeps the lens parallel to the sensor, but moves it up, down or from side to side, allowing you to control the perspective of your image. Tilting the lens shifts the plane of focus, allowing you to increase or decrease the amount of the scene that is in focus. If you want to get the best quality results without having to resort to any software tricks, a tilt-and-shift lens is the only option. Note that at present their are no lens correction profiles in Adode, DxO; I have however found that PTLens do have profiles for some of these lenses. Since the tilt-shift information is not stored in EXIF data, Lightroom or ACR (Adobe Camera RAW) will not correct issues that occur when the lens is tilted, swung or shifted. You would have to address those manually. One of the main tools for an architectural photographer is the tilt-shift lens. The most important quality of this lens and what makes it so popular and needed in photographing buildings and interior spaces, is the fact that it can keep the verticals of a building parallel, thus presenting the object as we see it and not with the verticals converging, as a normal or wide lens would capture it. In other words the use of tilt-shift lenses “removes” the wide angle lens distortion, or rather it does not introduce it in the first place. It removes the “keystone effect”, as the convergence of the verticals in case of tilting the camera is otherwise known. Another important characteristic of this lens, a characteristic that makes it ideal for the architectural photographer, is its exceptional clarity, sharpness and lack of chromatic aberration, that are not equaled by the more common lenses. The superior sharpness and high quality image is one of the characteristics of the prime lenses, as all tilt-shift lenses are, and more specifically of the tilt-shift lenses, due to their construction and exceptional glass quality. Correct Converging Verticals The classic use of the shift movement in tilt-shift photography is to avoid converging verticals in your images. To achieve this you start with the lens in its normal position and, making sure that the camera is level and the sensor is vertical, frame your basic image. But at this stage the shot won’t include the top of the subject, and there will be too much foreground, so you shift the lens upwards, which will alter the framing of the shot to include the top of the subject while keeping everything straight in the frame. Only after my return to photography, did I discover my limitations of capturing cathedral interiors in Croatia with my Nikon AF-S NIKKOR 24-70mm f/2.8G ED Lens. This is when I discovered tilt-shift lenses and decided to invest in them on my return home. Had I had a tilt-shift lens for this purpose, I would have walked away with many more pleasing images than I currently did. Panoramic Shots Using the shift movement you can produce a series of images that can easily be stitched together in software such as Photomerge in Photoshop, or any other that you may favour. Once you have positioned the camera, all you need to do is to take three shots, one with the lens shifted left, one centred and one right. This tilt-shift photography technique can’t produce the extremely wide panoramas that can be done by rotating the camera, but because the camera is in a fixed position they are easy to set up and stitch together. This eliminates the need for a panoramic head on your tripod and the loss of the image when cropping in post, as the camera has not moved from it's position, rather that the lens has shifted in the case of a horizontal image; tilted in the case of a vertical image. Sometimes it’s impossible to position the camera to avoid obstructions such as fences appearing in the frame. However, it’s often possible to use the shift movement to alter the viewpoint enough for the obstruction to be just out of the frame. The shift can also be handy for avoiding including a reflection of yourself when shooting shiny surfaces. Toy Town Effect This effect is usually achieved by pointing the camera down, and then tilting the lens up. It’s often most successful when shooting from a high viewpoint, as this means that you can angle the camera more than when shooting at the same level as the subject. Tilting the lens upwards means that the plane of focus moves in the opposite direction to the way that the subject is positioned, producing an extremely shallow area of sharp focus. This tilt-shift photography effect is most pronounced when using wide apertures, and you will also need to refocus on the area that you want to be sharp, because tilting the lens completely alters the focus settings on the lens. Sideways Tilt Similar to the toy town effect, this relies on the extremely shallow depth of field, but instead of tilting the lens up you rotate it and tilt it to one side. This is perfect for shooting scenes where there are objects that are the same distance from the camera at either side of the frame. By tilting the lens sideways you can then throw the subject on one side of the frame out of focus, while keeping the subject on the opposite side sharp. An example would be a shooting a row of shops, and all you want in focus is a single doorway. Increased Depth of Field This effect is one of the more subtle uses of the tilt movement. It can allow you to keep a subject sharp, which would otherwise be impossible even using extremely small apertures. Once you have framed your shot, tilt the lens slowly towards the subject that you want to keep in focus. This moves the plane of focus, so that instead of being parallel to the sensor, it corresponds to the surface of the subject that you want to keep in focus. This is great for product photography. Focusing With A Tilt-Shift lens You will only be able to focus manually, since the mechanics of the tilt-shift makes impossible the use of an auto-focus system in this lens. By using the tilt function it allows front-to-back depth of field (DoF) meaning we can keep everything in focus, no matter the aperture, even at f/3.5 of f/2.8. What you need to do to get a front-to-back depth of field is to use a “trial and error” method: Mount the camera on a tripod. Set your aperture at f/8 for best quality of the image (you can also set a different aperture if needed). Open the Live View of the camera. Choose two important subjects (points) that you want to be in focus, one in the foreground and the other one in the background. Focus on the closest point you want sharp in the scene (the foreground subject you chose). Tilt the lens downwards slightly till the furthest point in the scene is in focus (in general a tilt of no more than 1-2 degrees will be enough most of the times to bring everything in focus). Go back and forth 2-3 times with fine tuning, while zooming up to 10x in Live View to check out the focus, till both subjects (in the foreground and in the background) are in focus, and the entire scene will then be in focus. Metering Light And Setting The Exposure With A Tilt-Shift lens When tilting or shifting the lens, the exposure the camera meters changes due to the light that leaks into the camera when the lens parts move relatively to each other, since the parts of a tilt-shift lens are not sealed between them and the fact that they are moving relatively to one another creates small openings that allow the light to enter the lens and confuse the light meter that indicates us the right exposure. How to deal with this? It is not very difficult, just meter your scene before tilting or shifting the lens, while it still works like a normal lens from the point of view of the movements it makes. Tilt-Shift And Long Exposure Photography Issues Concerning Shooting Long Exposure With A Tilt-Shift Lens At first glance, shooting long exposure with a tilt-shift lens is not different from doing it with any other regular lens. There are though two aspects to take into account when shooting long exposure with this lens and that make it different from shooting long exposure with a regular lens: Focusing And Metering Light The first aspect and issue is related to the way we will focus and meter the light so we can calculate the needed exposure. In the case the lens will be used tilted or shifted or both, just as in the case of short exposure, the light metering will be done before tilting or shifting the lens. This needs to be done so the light meter does not get confused by the light that may enter through the small openings created between the tilted or shifted parts and reach the sensor when tilting or shifting the lens. Light Leakage Issue The second aspect and issue is the light leakage that can occur in a tilt-shift lens during a long exposure. Just as in the case of metering light in a regular exposure with a tilt-shift lens where, if tilted or shifted, the lens allows the light to leak in and confuse the light meter, the same can happen in the case of a long exposure because of the extended time the lens is exposed to light while not being sealed properly and meant for use in long exposure photography. How To Overcome Light Leakage In A Tilt-Shift Lens During Long Exposure Photography It is not difficult to avoid light leakage. You will use the same principle you use so the light does not leak into the camera through the viewfinder: cover it. Thus, you will cover the lens in the case of a long exposure with a black cloth that will need to have the shape of a sleeve and be rather thick so it does not let the light inside the lens. You can also cover the entire camera with a black cloth and just leave uncovered the opening of the tilt-shift lens. How To Use A Tilt-Shift Lens For Portraiture Rotate the lens to a 45° angle, this will give you a diagonal blur through your plane of view in your image. Make sure your dioptre is calibrated for your vision. Since the tilt-shift lens is manual focus, you really need to make sure what you looking at is actually in focus. Shoot at f/5.6 for these shots, the out of focus areas will still produce pleasing results and a beautiful bokeh. When shooting at full length or 3/4, keep your subject close to their background, otherwise you may see distracting objects in your background come into focus. When shooting portraits, check your background is far away enough to be out of focus as in the full shot. Make sure to focus sharply on the eyes. YouTube Video Clip This 08:28 minute video clip visually explains the uses of a Samyang Tilt-Shift 24mm f/3.5. In Conclusion The Nikon PC-E NIKKOR 24mm f/3.5D ED Tilt-Shift Lens can be a very powerful and valuable tool in a photographer’s bag. It has many different uses – the lens can act as a normal 24mm lens for wide-angle photography, can swing left and right or tilt up and down and can be shifted in different directions at the same time. The shifting capability gives photographers the ability to control converging lines, while tilting and swinging allow changing the lens plane to either bring everything in focus, or to selectively apply focus to certain parts of an image. These unique features make the Nikon PC-E NIKKOR 24mm f/3.5D ED Tilt-Shift Lens a very specialized lens. They also add to complexity of using such a lens. It took me several weeks to fully understand how to work with PC-E lenses and even after using them for a while, I still had occasional issues with focus and depth of field. Nikon PC-E Micro-NIKKOR 45mm f/2.8D ED Tilt-Shift Lens is very much like a nifty-fifty for me, except that it is a tilt-shift lens. Nikon PC-E Micro-NIKKOR 85mm f/2.8D Tilt-Shift Lens is very special portrait lens, and can give very pleasing results if used creatively. One major annoyance with most tilt-shift lenses, including the Nikon PC-E NIKKOR 24mm f/3.5D ED Tilt-Shift Lens, is the factory default setting for tilt and shift movements. All Nikon PC-E lenses are shipped in such configuration, where you can swing the lens left and right, but you cannot simultaneously shift the lens in the same parallel direction. If you tilt the lens, you can only shift to the left and right sides and if you swing the lens, you can only shift it upwards or downwards. To fix this issue, you have to send your lens to a Nikon service center for reconfiguration. Nikon does not sell these in parallel configuration, but if you buy a used unit, it might be already configured for parallel movements. If you are a landscape photographer, definitely get yours adjusted. I have had my Nikon PC-E NIKKOR 24mm f/3.5D ED Tilt-Shift Lens done at Orms and it makes such a difference! The Nikon PC-E Micro-NIKKOR 45mm f/2.8D ED Tilt-Shift Lens and Nikon PC-E Micro-NIKKOR 45mm f/2.8D ED Tilt-Shift Lens cannot be converted as the electronic ribbon inside is too short to allow for this. There is a high learning curve with these lenses, be sure to experiment with what works best for you, as well as a lot of creativity to be had with mastering these lenses. Information sourced from various sources on the internet, as well as my personal experiences.
Which Film Should You Buy? By Eric Reichbaum Maybe you’re an amateur digital photographer, or a young professional photographer who got into photography after darkrooms were removed from your school’s classroom, and you’re interested in shooting film but you don’t know where to begin. This guide will help you navigate your way through the multitude of options out there. While there aren’t nearly as many types or sizes of film as there were in the past, there are still enough to make choosing your film a daunting task. Let’s take a look at your choices and, hopefully, help you narrow the field down to a few good choices that will work for your needs. Roll and sheet films are available in three different options: black-and-white, colour negative, and colour transparency. Black-and-White Negative Film If you’re brand new to film photography, shooting black-and-white is a good place to start for a few reasons. It is generally more forgiving, so if you miss your exposure, you’ll have a better chance of pulling back shadows or highlights than you would with colour film. Another reason that B&W is a good starting point is that it is much easier to develop at home, an option that is not only rewarding and fun, but will also afford you more control over the look of your photos and save you money if you shoot a lot. A common black-and-white film is Kodak’s Tri-X, a 400-speed film noted for its fine, yet distinct grain quality, high sharpness, and wide exposure latitude. Tri-X was introduced in 1954 and has long been a choice of professional journalists and documentarians. Think of the most well-known images from the Vietnam War, and photos of celebrities like Muhammad Ali and Johnny Cash; chances are the images you’re picturing were all captured on Tri-X film. Similar to Tri-X 400 is Tri-X 320, or TXP, which is now only available in sheet film sizes. Compared to Tri-X 400, this film has smooth tonal gradations, a bit of a narrower exposure latitude, and improved highlight separation. Depending on the format you will be working with, both TX 400 and TXP 320 are classics, albeit quite different from one another. Also popular is Kodak’s T-Max, which is available in 100 and 400 speeds, in both rolls and sheets, and has even finer grain than Tri-X. Kodak claims that T-Max 400 is the sharpest and finest grain stock of any 400 speed black-and-white film, and that T-Max 100 is the finest grain 100 speed black-and-white film. This is due to the T-GRAIN emulsion structure, which is a bit more homogenous and clean-looking than the classic grain profile of Tri-X. T-Max films are also especially well-suited for scanning, due to the less-apparent grain. Ilford’s HP5 Plus and FP4 Plus are other good options for general black-and-white shooting. HP5 is a 400-speed film that exhibits medium contrast, extended shadow detail, and a wide exposure latitude that permits rating this film up to EI 3200. FP4 is the slower, finer-grained option that exhibits a fine grain structure with high sharpness and acutance, making it a fine choice for enlargements. If you’re looking to shoot a higher-speed film, try Ilford Delta 3200, which is great for shooting in low-light conditions. Delta is known for its wide latitude, making it a forgiving film if you over- or underexpose your shots, and is responsive to pushing or pulling when developing. Delta is also available in 100 and 400 speeds, both of which use core-shell crystal technology for extremely fine grain and high sharpness. Ilford’s chromogenic XP2 Super is a unique 400-speed black-and-white film that is processed using the same C-41 chemistry for colour negative films, meaning you can have it developed at most one-hour film labs. Also available from Ilford are Pan F Plus, a slow ISO 50 film with extremely fine grain, and SFX, a 200-speed film with added sensitivity to red light to give an infrared film look. Also worth noting are Fujifilm’s Neopan 100 Acros, an orthopanchromatic film that is ideal for long exposures; Rollei’s RPX 25, a low-speed film with a transparent base that is great for scanning; Rollei Infrared 400, the sole true remaining infrared film available; and Adox's variety of black-and-white films, which tend to be slower, high-resolution options that support reversal processing to make black-and-white slides. Colour Negative Film If you prefer colour over monochrome images, or if you want to shoot both, there are a number of great options available. A popular choice is the Kodak Portra series, a relatively new film, being introduced in 1998. It has gone through a few different updates and upgrades before landing at today’s current stock, which is available in speeds of ISO 160, 400, and 800. As the name suggests, it is ideal for portraits, thanks to its naturally reproduced skin tones, realistic colour saturation, high sharpness, and very fine grain. Portra’s T-GRAIN emulsion and low contrast make it ideal for scanning applications. If Portra’s colours prove too muted for your style, consider Kodak Ektar, a 100-speed film known for its exceptional sharpness, vivid and highly saturated colours, and very fine grain. Another option is Fujifilm's Fujicolor PRO 400H, a film that is best suited for fashion, portraits, and other work where accurate colour reproduction is essential. Kodak Gold and GC/UltraMax have long been popular films for less discerning, more casual applications, and remain good options for those looking for an affordable film with fine grain and rich colour saturation. Colour Transparency Film Colour transparency film, also known as colour reversal, chrome, or slide film, produces a positive instead of a negative and has several distinctions compared to negative film. The most obvious is that when you get your film back, it will be a correct, positive image rather than a negative image shrouded by a colour mask. This lets you project your slides or view them more easily, but does complicate things if you are looking to do any traditional printing from slides nowadays. On the plus side, slides are very good for scanning and tend to have vibrant, punchy colours that are suitable for landscape and nature photography. One con to transparency film, however, is that it inherently has a narrower exposure latitude than virtually any negative film, meaning your exposures really have to be precise to get usable results. Once very common among pros and amateurs alike, slide film has slowly faded into obscurity. Kodachrome was discontinued in 2009, Ektachrome products ceased to exist around 2013, and now there are only Fujifilm’s Provia 100F, Velvia 50, and Velvia 100 left from the major film brands, with a few other transparency films from brands such as Agfa, Rollei, and Lomography. As with all slide film, both Provia and Velvia offer very little leeway in terms of exposure, although Provia is slightly more forgiving. Provia is less saturated than Velvia, and lends itself better to long exposures, thanks to its relatively higher reciprocity. Velvia produces highly saturated transparencies often appreciated by landscape photographers. Additionally, both Provia and Velvia are the last remaining transparency films available in sheets for large format photographers. Experimental Film Lastly, there are some less traditional films on the market now that lend themselves well to experimentation. Lomography has a wide variety of these oddball films, such as LomoChrome Purple a highly saturated film with a purple hue, and Redscale, a unique reverse-rolled film that produces images with a distinct red hue. Lomography also offers some of the only 110 cartridge film still available today. Two films from CineStill bring the look of cinematic motion pictures to still photography with 50Daylight Xpro, an ISO 50 daylight-balanced colour negative film, and 800Tungsten Xpro, an ISO 800 tungsten-balanced film, both with the rem-jet anti-halation layer pre-removed, allowing for normal C-41 processing. Adox’ Color Implosion is another experimental film that produces vibrant red tones with a very prominent grain structure. Instant Film Instant film can be broken down into three categories: instax film for Fujifilm instax Cameras, Fujifilm peel-apart film for Polaroid cameras, and Impossible Project instant film for Polaroid cameras. Let’s start with what most people think of when they think of instant film: Polaroids. Unfortunately, Polaroid no longer exists as we once knew it, and the company stopped making film years ago. Luckily for photographers, a company called the Impossible Project started up and began making its own film for type 600, SX-70, and Image/Spectra Polaroid cameras. In addition to standard white frames, they also have unique options such as Round Frames and animal print Skins Edition frames. Next is Fujifilm’s instax films designed especially for the instax cameras. There are two types: instax mini, and instax Wide. These are similar to the original Polaroid instant film and the current Impossible Project offerings. Last, but not least, is Fujifilm’s Professional FP-100C (colour) and FP-3000B (black-and-white) peel-apart films. The FP-3000B has been discontinued, unfortunately, but is still available until current stock runs out. These two films are made for cameras that accept instant film with a photo size of 85 x 108mm, such as the Polaroid Automatic Land Cameras, and those provided or fitted with a compatible back. Whether you’re a seasoned digital photographer looking for a new way to capture images, or a student shooting film as part of a class requirement, film photography is sure to spark a fire in your photography. If nothing else, it will cause you to slow down and appreciate each frame you capture. Though it may take some time to go through the plethora of film mentioned above, eventually you’ll find your favourite, go-to film. I buy most of my film at B&H in New York, as it is much more affordable than locally, it sometimes can be even more affordable if a few film shooters buy in bulk together to reduce the shipping expenses. Although the selection of film options are certainly far from what it used to be, Orms does stock a reasonable selection, including: Ilford Delta 100 (available in 35mm and 120mm) Ilford Delta 400 (available in 35mm and 120mm) Ilford FP 4 Plus (available in 35mm and 120mm) Ilford HP 5 Plus (available in 35mm and 120mm) Ilford XP 2 Super 400 Ilford PANF 50 Plus (120mm) Kodak Portra 160 (available in 35mm and 120mm) Kodak Portra 400 (available in 35mm and 120mm) Kodak TX 400 (available in 35mm and 120mm) Kodak T-MAX 100 (available in 35mm and 120mm) Kodak TX 100 (available in 35mm and 120mm) Kodak Ektar 100 Fujifilm Superia X-Tra 400 NOTE: Some of these aren’t loaded on the website, they do usually have in stock. Please phone Orms Cape Town on 021 469 1977 for more information.
Photography And The Moon Photography and the moon, this is an interesting subject to photograph, but just how many moons are there. Lets find out. Supermoon What is a supermoon? Astrologer Richard Nolle coined the term supermoon over 30 years ago. The term has only recently come into popular usage. Nolle has defined a supermoon as: … a new or full moon which occurs with the moon at or near (within 90% of) its closest approach to Earth in a given orbit. That’s a pretty generous definition, which is why there are so many supermoons. By this definition, according to Nolle: There are 4-6 supermoons a year on average. Another astronomical term for a supermoon is a perigee full moon, or a perigee new moon. Perigee just means “near Earth.” The moon is full, or opposite Earth from the sun, once each month. It’s new, or more or less between the Earth and sun, once each month. And, every month, as the moon orbits Earth, it comes closest to Earth. That point is called perigee. The moon always swings farthest away once each month; that point is called apogee. Supermoon is a catchier term than perigee new moon or perigee full moon. We first became familiar with the supermoon label in the year 2011 when the media used it to describe the full moon of March 19, 2011. On that date, the full moon aligned with proxigee – the closest perigee of the year – to stage the closest, largest full moon of 2011. When are the supermoons of 2015? By Nolle’s definition, the new moon or full moon has to come within 361,836 kilometers (224,834 miles) of our planet, as measured from the centers of the moon and Earth, in order to be considered a supermoon. By that definition, the year 2015 has a total of six supermoons. The first supermoon, for 2015, came with the January 20 new moon. The new moons on February 18 and March 20 were also considered supermoons, according to Nolle’s definition, and that same definition dictates that the full moons of August, September and October will be supermoons, too. The full moon supermoons or near-perigee full moons for 2015: Full moon of August 29 at 18:35 UTC Full moon of September 28 at 2:50 UTC Full moon of October 27 at 12:05 UTC The full moon on September 28, 2015, will present the closest supermoon of the year (356,896 kilometers or 221,754 miles). What’s more, this September 28, 2015 full moon will stage a total lunar eclipse, concluding a series of Blood Moon eclipses that started with the total lunar eclipse of April 15, 2014. Blood Moon In 2015, the moon comes closest to Earth on September 28 (356,877 kilometers), and swings furthest away some two weeks before, on September 14 (406,464 kilometers). That’s a difference of 49,587 kilometers (406,464 – 356,877 = 49,587). Ninety percent of this 49,587-figure equals 44,628.3 kilometers (0.9 x 49,587 = 44,628.3). Presumably, any new or full moon coming closer than 361,863.1 kilometers (406,464 – 44,628.3 = 361,835.7) would be “at or near (within 90% of) its closest approach to Earth.” Spring tides will accompany the supermoons, the tides be larger than usual at the January, February and March 2015 new moons and the August, September and October 2015 full moons. This is because all full moons (and new moons) combine with the sun to create larger-than-usual tides, but closer-than-average full moons (or closer-than-average new moons) elevate the tides even more. We witnessed this in Zanzibar this year August. Each month, on the day of the new moon, the Earth, moon and sun are aligned, with the moon in between. This line-up creates wide-ranging tides, known as spring tides. High spring tides climb up especially high, and on the same day low tides plunge especially low. The closest new moon of the year on February 18 and the year’s closest full moon on September 28 are bound to accentuate the spring tide all the more, giving rise to what’s called a perigean spring tide. If you live along an ocean coastline, watch for high tides caused by the September 27-28 perigean full moon. Will these high tides cause flooding? Probably not, unless a strong weather system accompanies the perigean spring tide. Still, keep an eye on the weather, because storms do have a large potential to accentuate perigean spring tides. Dates of closest full supermoons in past and future years. More often than not, the one day of the year that the full moon and perigee align also brings about the year’s closest perigee (also called proxigee). Because the moon has recurring cycles, we can count on the full moon and perigee to come in concert in periods of about one year, one month and 18 days. Therefore, the full moon and perigee realign in periods of about one year and 48 days. So we can calculate the dates of the closest full moons in recent and future years as: March 19, 2011 May 6, 2012 June 23, 2013 August 10, 2014 September 28, 2015 November 14, 2016 January 2, 2018. There won’t be a perigee full moon in 2017 because the full moon and perigee won’t realign again (after November 14, 2016) until January 2, 2018. Sep 28'2015 Blood Moon Looking further into the future, the perigee full moon will come closer than 356,500 kilometers for the first time in the 21st century (2001-2100) on November 25, 2034 (356,446 km). The closest full moon of the 21st century will fall on December 6, 2052 (356,425 km). By the way, some astronomers will call all the full moons listed above proxigee full moons. Click here to see how the Supermoon Blood Moon played out in the Cape Town area in 2015 Blue Moon "Once in a Blue Moon" is a common way of saying not very often, but what exactly is a Blue Moon? According to the popular definition, it is the second Full Moon to occur in a single calendar month. The average interval between Full Moons is about 29.5 days, whilst the length of an average month is roughly 30.5 days. This makes it very unlikely that any given month will contain two Full Moons, though it does sometimes happen. On average, there will be 41 months that have two Full Moons in every century, so you could say that once in a Blue Moon actually means once every two-and-a-half years. Defining the Original Blue Moon The correct, original definition is that a Blue Moon is the third full Moon in an astronomical season with four full Moons. A normal year has four astronomical seasons - spring, summer, fall (autumn), and winter - with three months and normally three full Moons each. When one of the astronomical seasons has four full Moons, instead of the normal three, the third full Moon is called a Blue Moon. Next Blue Moon (Second full Moon in a month) 31 January, 2018 31 March, 2018 31 October, 2020 Blue Coloured Moon Astronomical Blue Moons happen either once every two to three years or so, depending on which of the two definitions you apply. A Moon that actually looks blue, however, is a very rare sight. The Moon, full or any other phase, can appear blue when the atmosphere is filled with dust or smoke particles of a certain size; slightly wider than 0.7 micron. The particles scatter the red light making the Moon appear blue in color, this can happen for instance after a dust storm, forest fire or a volcanic eruption. Eruptions like on Mt. Krakatoa, Indonesia (1883), El Chichon, Mexico (1983), Mt. St. Helens (1980) and Mount Pinatubo (1991) are all known to have caused blue moons. The Science Behind Blue Moons There are two astronomical definitions of a Blue Moon; both are a type of Full Moon. When the Moon very rarely actually looks blue, it's because of a certain size dust particles in the atmosphere. The Next Blue Moons The phrase, once in a Blue Moon, is colloquially used to suggest that something is very rare. But just how rare, depends on your definition. In astronomy, Blue Moon is defined as either the third full Moon of an astronomical season with four full Moon or the second full Moon in a calendar month. Such a blue Moon (second full Moon in single calendar month) occurred on Friday, July 31, 2015 at 10:43 am UTC. What is a Blue Moon? Contrary to popular belief, a Blue Moon is not actually blue in color. Blue Moon is a term that is used to describe the third full Moon of an astronomical season that has four full Moons. There are 4 astronomical seasons in a year: Spring - March Equinox to June Solstice Summer - June Solstice to September Equinox Autumn - September Equinox to December Solstice Winter - December Solstice to March Equinox When one of the seasons in a year has four full Moons, instead of the usual three, the third full Moon is called a Blue Moon. How Rare Are Blue Moons? These days, the second full Moon in a calendar month is also often referred to as a Blue Moon. This particular use was popularized due to a miscalculation published in a 1946 article in Sky and Telescope magazine. Such Blue Moons occur rather frequently - at least once every two or three years. The next such blue Moon occurred on July 31, 2015. A Rare Exception Blue colored Moons do rarely occur when dust or smoke particles in the air are of a specific size. Such particles help create a blue colored Moon by scattering blue light. Red Moon, which can be caused by other sizes of dust particles or lunar eclipses, are much more common than Blue Moons. Why the Third Moon? There are different accounts of why the third full moon of a season of four full Moons is called a Blue Moon. For instance, the Ecclestical calendar, which indicates the dates of the Christian fasts and festivals, uses the phases of the Moon to determine the exact dates for holidays like Lent and Easter. The month of Lent contains the Lenten Moon. The first full Moon of Spring – also known as Easter Moon or Paschal Moon – falls a week before Easter. In order to ensure that Lent and Easter coincides with the phases of the Moon, the calendar has termed the third Moon of the season as the Blue Moon. Another version of this is that since each full Moon of a normal year already has a given name, for instance Harvest Moon, the 13th nameless full Moon in a year was named a Blue Moon. This way the lunations and calendars were aligned to make sure celebrations and customs would still fall during their "proper" times. About once every 19 years, the month of February does not have a full Moon. The years when this happens, also have two full Moons in two different months. This phenomenon will occur next in 2018. Black Moon If the second Full Moon in one month has a special name, what about the second New Moon? Most people don't notice New Moons. It's easy to see the Moon when it's full, but the only way to tell when a New Moon is happening is during an eclipse, or by referring to an almanac or using a Moon Phase calculator. To Wiccans, the second New Moon is called the Black Moon, and any magic worked during that period is deemed to be especially powerful. Of course, the chances of two New Moons falling within one calendar month are just the same as two Full Moons, but because New Moons are generally invisible, most people tend not to notice the occasions when a month has two of them. That's not to say that New Moons aren't important to non-astronomers. To the world's Muslims, the date of New Moon is of great interest, since the Islamic calendar is governed by the phases of the Moon: the start of each month is marked by the first sighting of the new crescent Moon. Another definition - four New Moons in a season According to an article in the May 1999 issue of Sky and Telescope, the traditional definition of a Blue Moon is the third Full Moon in a season which has four Full Moons. Compilers of almanacs such as the Maine Farmer's Almanac would use a coloured symbol to denote this third Full Moon, hence the name. Similarly, a Black Moon can be the third New Moon in a season which has four New Moons. The next Black Moon: Dates and times are given in Greenwich Mean Time. September 20, 2017 0530 GMT September 17, 2020 1100 GMT The term Black Moon doesn’t come from astronomy, or skylore, however from Wiccan culture. It’s the name for the second of two new moons in one calendar month. January 2014, for example, had two new moon supermoons, the second of which was not only a supermoon, but a Black Moon. Does a Black Moon have to be a supermoon in order to be called Black, no not at all. The next Black moon by the above definition will occur on October 30, 2016. Other names for the second new moon in a month: Spinner Moon, Finder’s Moon, Secret Moon. Another definition for Black Moon: the third of four new moons in one season. This last happened with the new moon supermoon of February 18, 2015, because this particular new moon was the third of four new moons to take place between the December 2014 solstice and the March 2015 equinox. The next Black Moon by this definition will occur on August 21, 2017, to feature a Black Moon total solar eclipse in the United States. Bottom line: The term supermoon doesn’t come from astronomy. It comes from astrology, and the definition is pretty generous so that there are 4 to 6 supermoons each year. This post explains what a supermoon is, how many will occur in 2015, which moon is the most “super” of all the 2015 supermoons, and gives a list of upcoming full supermoons for the years ahead. Harvest Moon he "Harvest moon" and "Hunter's moon" are traditional terms for the full moons occurring during late summer and in the autumn, in the northern hemisphere usually in August, September and October respectively. The "Harvest Moon" is the full moon closest to the autumnal equinox (22 or 23 September), and the "Hunter's Moon" is the one following it. The names are recorded from the early 18th century. The names became traditional in American folklore, where they are now often popularly attributed to the Native Americans. The Feast of the Hunters' Moon is a yearly festival in Lafayette, Indiana, held in late September or early October each year since 1968. In 2010, the Harvest moon occurred on the night of equinox itself (some 51⁄2 hours after the point of equinox) for the first time since 1991. All full moons rise around the time of sunset. Because the moon moves eastward among the stars faster than the sun its meridian passage is delayed, causing it to rise later each day – on average by about 50.47 minutes. The harvest moon and hunter's moon are unique because the time difference between moonrises on successive evenings is much shorter than average. The moon rises approximately 30 minutes later from one night to the next, as seen from about 40 degrees N or S latitude. Thus, there is no long period of darkness between sunset and moonrise for several days following the actual date of the full moon Traditional Full Moon names Several cultures around the world have used the Moon as the basis for their calendars, to determine the seasons, and to set the dates of harvest and holidays at some point in their history. Here are some commonly used full Moon names in North American culture: January - Wolf Moon Also known as the Moon after Yule, Old Moon or Snow Moon, the full moon in January was named after howling wolves. February - Snow Moon February’s full moon was dedicated to the snowy conditions that marked the month. It was also sometimes called the full hunger moon by North American tribes who would find their food sources depleted due to the winter. March - Worm Moon The last full moon of the winter season in March, is also known as the Lenten Moon, the Crow Moon to signify the crows that appear at the end of winter, and Sap Moon to mark the time for harvesting maple syrup from maple tree saps. It is also known as the Worm Moon because of the earthworms that come out at the end of winter and herald the coming of spring. April - Pink Moon The first full moon in April is sometimes called the Paschal Moon in the ecclesiastical calendar because it is used to determine the date for Easter - the first Sunday after the Paschal Moon is Easter. The name Pink Moon comes from the pink flowers – phlox – that grow in many places at the beginning of spring. Other names for this full moon include Sprouting Grass Moon, Egg Moon and Fish Moon. May - Flower Moon The May full moon is known as Flower Moon to signify the flowers that bloom during this month. Other names for the full moon are Milk Moon and Corn Planting Moon. June - Strawberry Moon June’s full moon is named after strawberries that become plentiful during this month. July - Buck Moon The full moon for the month of July is called Buck Moon to signify the new antlers that emerge from Buck Deers' foreheads around this time if the year. This full Moon is also known as Thunder Moon or Hay Moon. August - Sturgeon Moon The full moon for August is called Sturgeon Moon because of the large number of fish that can be easily found in the lakes in North America. Other names for this full moon include Green Corn Moon or Grain Moon. September - Harvest Moon September’s full Moon is called Harvest Moon because farmers tend to harvest their crops around the full Moon. October - Hunter's Moon or Blood Moon Traditionally, tribes spent the month of October preparing for the coming winter. This included hunting, slaughtering and preserving meats for use as food. This led to October’s full Moon being called the Hunter’s Moon and sometimes Blood Moon or Sanguine Moon. However, this should not be confused with a Total Lunar Eclipse - Blood Moon November - Beaver Moon According to folklore, the full moon for November is named after Beavers who become active while preparing for the winter. December - Cold Moon December is the month when winter begins for most of the Northern Hemisphere, hence, its full moon is called the Cold Moon. Phases of the Moon Moon phases depend on the position of both the Sun and Moon with respect to the Earth. The 4 primary phases of the Moon are: new, first quarter, full and third quarter. The phases of the Moon. ©bigtockphoto.com/Petr Jilek The intermediate phases between the primary phases are, waxing crescent, waxing gibbous, waning gibbous, and waning crescent. New Moon A new moon is the moment when the Sun and Moon are in conjunction, meaning that the Sun and Earth are on the opposite sides of the Moon. A New Moon cannot normally be seen from the Earth since only the dark side of the Moon faces the Earth at New Moon. Sometimes, if the New Moon is close to the Lunar nodes of its path, it causes a Solar Eclipse. New Moon: The darkest Moon Phase. Waxing Crescent Moon A few days after the new moon phase, the Moon will be visible again in a phase that lasts until the first quarter, called waxing crescent moon. The initial period, just after the Moon becomes visible, is sometimes called new moon, although it has another definition. Although only a small part of the Moon may be illuminated by the Sun, the rest of the Moon may also be faintly visible, due to a reflection from the Earth to the Moon, called earthshine. The waxing crescent moon is most visible after sunset. The first visual sight of the waxing crescent moon determines the beginnings of months in the Muslim calendar. First Quarter Moon First Quarter Moon is the second Phase. During the first quarter, half of the Moon is illuminated, as seen from the Earth. The Moon rises near the middle of the day and sets near the middle of the night. In northern regions of the world, the right part will be visible, while the left part will be visible in the southern regions. Near the equator, the upper part is bright after moonrise, and the lower part is bright before moonset (the bright part appears and disappears first). Waxing Gibbous Moon The waxing gibbous moon occurs between the first quarter and the full moon. The sun illuminates more than half of the Moon's surface during this period. Full Moon Full Moon is the brightest phase. Each Full Moon has a name ...unless it's a Blue Moon Full moon appears when the Sun and the Moon are on opposite sides of the Earth. As seen from Earth, all of the Moon's surface will be visible. The full moon is visible approximately from sunset to sunrise. When observed from Earth, the Moon can appear to be full for a couple of days, since more than 98 percent of the Moon's disc is illuminated a day before or after the full moon. During full moon, the Moon may pass through Earth's shadow causing a lunar eclipse. If the whole moon is in the Earth's shadow, or umbra, a total lunar eclipse occurs. If only a part of the Moon enters the umbra, we see a partial lunar eclipse. Waning Gibbous Moon The period between full moon and third quarter is called waning gibbous moon. The portion of the visible half of the Moon illuminated goes down from 100 percent to 50 percent during this period. Third Quarter Moon Third Quarter Moon is the last phase. The third quarter moon occurs when the other half of the Moon is illuminated compared to the first quarter. On the day of third quarter, the Moon rises approximately in the middle of the night and sets in the middle of the day. Waning Crescent Moon The waning crescent moon is the period between the third quarter moon and the next new moon. It is most visible before sunrise. The Sun illuminates less than half the Moon during this period. When only a small part of the Moon is visible, it may be possible to see earthshine on the dark side of the Moon. Lunation A lunation is a cycle of the Moon. It starts at new moon and lasts until the next new moon. On average, it takes the Moon 29 days 12 hours 44 minutes to go from one new Moon to the next. This time frame is called a synodic month. The duration of a synodic month varies from one lunation to another, most importantly because the orbit of the Earth and Moon are ellipses rather than circles, where the orbit speed depends on how close the orbiting object is to the mass center. For example, the Moon moves faster when it is closest to the Earth. Some years, such as 2004, have relatively small duration differences throughout the year (five hours difference between minimum and maximum duration), while the year 2008 will have larger differences (more than twelve hours). Information found on various sources on the Internet
August 2015 - Zanzibar Shoot My wife Dominique and I had the privilege of spending 8 days in Zanzibar. We stayed on the Unguja Island, based ourselves on the northern tip in Nungwi. Our stay was at the DoubleTree Resort by Hilton Hotel Zanzibar - Nungwi, where we were very well looked after by our host Shaun. Everyone dreams of an "island-in-the-sun" holiday or destination, and most people walk away with palm trees, cocktails on the beach images, I had this in mind too; however, from the outset, wanted to shoot the Milky Way over Zanzibar, capture the raw grittiness of the streets, life, historic buildings, convey the essence and pulse of life as it is in Zanzibar and Stone Town; to be able to tell this story in captivating colour and monochrome as well. On doing some research, I found only three other photographers that had actually done photographed the Milky Way! I wanted this travel shoot to be a special Zanzibar photo shoot, something different and unique...my objectives were achieved! The GOOGLE mapS below ARE interactive If you select satellite map, you'll soon see a wide turquoise-blue strip which lines Zanzibar's East Coast: this is the shallow-water between the land and the coastal barrier reef. Given that the tide retreats almost to the reef in many parts of the East Coast – this map shows how far the tide goes, and so why it's not always possible to swim on these beaches. A General Overview of Zanzibar The general impression of Zanzibar when approached from the mainland is of a long, low island with small ridges along its central north–south axis. Coconut palms and other vegetation cover the land surface. It is 85km at its greatest length and 39km broad. The highest point of the central ridge system is Masingini, 119m above sea level. Higher ground is gently undulating and gives rise to a few small rivers, which flow west to the sea or disappear in the coral country. The climate is typically insular, tropical, and humid, with an average annual rainfall of 1500 to 2000 mm. Rainfall is reliable and well-distributed in comparison with most of eastern Africa. Northeast trade winds blow from December to March and southeast trade winds from May to October. The “long rains” occur between March and May and the “short rains” between October and December. At the present moment, Mango offers flights from Johannesburg to Zanzibar City. The History of Zanzibar A Portuguese Interlude: 16th - 17th Century The small tropical island of Zanzibar, a mere twenty miles off the east coast of Africa, has played a major part in local history, out of all proportion to its size. The reason is, its easy access to traders and adventurers exploring down the east coast of Africa from Arabia. Islam was well established in this region by the 11th century. During the 16th century there was a new category of visitor arriving from the south - the Portuguese. They establish friendly relations with the ruler. By the end of the century there was a Portuguese trading station and a mission run by Augustinian friars. But in the late 17th century the Christian presence comes to an end, after a forceful campaign down the coast by the Muslims of Oman. Oman and Zanzibar: 1698-1856 In the 1690s Saif bin Sultan, the imam of Oman, is pressing down the East African coast. A major obstacle is Fort Jesus, housing the garrison of a Portuguese settlement at Mombasa. After a two-year siege, it falls to Saif in 1698. Thereafter the Omanis easily eject the Portuguese from Zanzibar and from all other coastal regions north of Mozambique. Zanzibar, a valuable property as the main slave market of the East African coast, becomes an increasingly important part of the Omani empire - a fact reflected by the decision of the greatest 19th-century sultan of Oman, Sa'id ibn Sultan, to make it from 1837 his main place of residence. Sa'id builds impressive palaces and gardens in Zanzibar. He improves the island's economy by introducing cloves, sugar and indigo (though at the same time he accepts a financial loss in co-operating with British attempts to end Zanzibar's slave trade). The link with Oman is broken after his death in 1856. Rivalry between his two sons is resolved, with the help of forceful British diplomacy, when one of them (Majid) succeeds to Zanzibar and to the many regions claimed by the family on the east African coast. The other (Thuwaini) inherits Muscat and Oman. British Involvement: 1856-1885 By the time Majid inherits the throne in Zanzibar, the British are increasingly involved in this prosperous offshore island. In this same year, 1856, Burton and Speke make this the base for their exploration into the interior. Their route towards Lake Tanganyika is along the tracks frequented by Arab traders, through territory which the Omani sultans of Zanzibar claim as their own. By the time Majid dies, to be succeeded in 1870 by his brother Barghash, the British have appointed a consul to Zanzibar. His primary task is to end Zanzibar's notorious slave trade. This purpose is achieved by a treaty with Barghash in 1873. The consul who achieves this treaty is John Kirk. It is poignant for him that this is the year in which he does so. For it is also the year in which David Livingstone, the great anti-slavery explorer, dies in the African interior. His embalmed corpse is carried by his assistants all the way back to Zanzibar. Kirk, who receives Livingstone's body in his role as consul, has been an intimate friend. For five years, from 1858 to 1863, he accompanied all Livingstone's expeditions in the role of doctor and naturalist. He too has witnessed at first hand the brutal activities of the Arab slave traders in the interior. Livingstone would be pleased to know that their main market is now closed to them. Well aware that Zanzibar needs to replace slave revenue with legitimate economic activity, Kirk is assiduous in encouraging Barghash to build up the export of rubber and ivory - brought from the interior of the continent, where the sultan wields a somewhat loose and ramshackle authority through Tabora and on to Ujiji. By the mid-1880s the sultan is earning a fortune from these sources, but Kirk proves powerless to protect him from a new threat. In 1884-5 there are reports of a German, Karl Peters, snooping around the caravan routes to the Great Lakes. In March 1885 there comes the astonishing news that Germany is claiming a protectorate in this inland region. And in August there is an alarming sight from the verandah of the palace. A German-British Carve Up: 1885-1886 On 7 August 1885 five German warships steam into the lagoon of Zanzibar and train their guns on the sultan's palace. They have arrived with a demand from Bismarck that Sultan Barghash cede to the German emperor his mainland territories or face the consequences. But in the age of the telegram, gunboat diplomacy is no longer a local matter. This crisis is immediately on desks in London. Britain, eager not to offend Germany, suggests a compromise. The two nations should mutually agree spheres of interest over the territory stretching inland to the Great Lakes. This plan is accepted before August is out. The embarrassed British consul finds himself under orders from London to persuade the sultan to sign an agreement ceding the lion's share of his mainland territory, with the details still to be decided. In September the German gunships begin their journey home. A joint Anglo-German boundary commission starts work in the interior. By November 1886 the task is done and the result is agreed with the other main colonial power, France. The sultan is left a strip ten miles wide along the coast. Behind that a line is drawn to Mount Kilimanjaro and on to Lake Victoria at latitude 1° S. The British sphere of influence is to be to the north, the German to the south. The line remains to this day the border between Kenya and Tanzania. British Protectorate: 1890-1963 After the abrupt redistribution of the sultan's inland territories, Britain remains the only colonial power with a well-established presence in Zanzibar itself. With the approval of the sultan the island and its narrow coastal regions are declared a British protectorate in 1890. Although only wielding a fraction of their former power, the Arab sultans of Zanzibar are still during this colonial period the most influential Muslim leaders in east Africa. But their rule comes to an end soon after the island's independence in the 1960s. A new constitution, introduced in 1960, provides for a legislative assembly. The emerging political parties are split largely on ethnic lines, representing Arab and African interests respectively, and disagreement about the franchise delays the introduction of internal self-government until June 1963. It is followed in December by full independence and membership of the British Commonwealth. A coalition of Arab parties forms the first government, with the sultan as head of state. But in January 1964, a month after independence, a communist-led revolution topples the regime. The sultan is deposed and a republic proclaimed. The revolution, carried out by not more than 600 insurgents, involves considerable acts of violence against the Arab and Indian populations of the island - most of whom make a hasty departure. Abeid Amane Karume emerges as president of the resulting one-party state. His first step is to negotiate for union with neighbouring Tanganyika, also left-wing in its policies though not Marxist. The two nations are merged in April 1964, becoming the United Republic of Tanzania, with Nyerere as president and Karume as vice-president. But Zanzibar retains its revolutionary council and often continues to go its own way, to the discomfiture of the government in Dar es Salaam. Nungwi Nungwi is traditionally the centre of Zanzibar's dhow-building industry, and, over the last decade, the coastline here has rocketed in popularity to become one of the island's busiest beach destinations. The ramshackle fishing village has been side-lined by an ever-increasing number of guesthouses, bars, shops, restaurants and bikini-clad backpackers. Ageing hippies, cool dudes, gap-year students and bright young things escaping European city jobs are all drawn to its white sand, stage-set palm trees, turquoise sea and sparkling sunshine. The setting is beautiful, but the number of people, constant buzz and locals persistent haggling for an income off of tourists, can take the edge off its charm. By day, the beach sees sunbathing tourists slumber, swim and indulge in lemongrass massages, whilst wandering local guys tout their 'tours' and sell a range of mediocre paintings, sunglasses and replica football shirts; then, as the sun sets, the visitors arise and the whole place buzzes with party spirit. Beach bonfires blaze, cocktails flow and the music rocks till late, all provided by locals at the various hotels. Despite the influx of tourists, Nungwi is a traditional, conservative place. It was one of the last coastal settlements on Zanzibar to have a hotel, or any tourist facilities. As recently as the mid-1990s, proposals for large developments in the area were fiercely opposed by local people. Today, the proudly independent villagers give the impression that tourists are here on sufferance. However, they are not unfriendly and most visitors find that a little bit of cultural respect, politeness and a few words of Swahili go a long way. Some visitors, particularly backpackers, find themselves torn between either coming to Nungwi and the north coast, or going to Paje, Bwejuu and Jambiani on the east coast. For some thoughts on the differences between these two areas see. The sweeping cape on which Nungwi is situated is surrounded by sparkling, warm, turquoise seas, making it a perfect spot to engage in countless water activities. As well as being a tourist destination, Nungwi is also the centre of Zanzibar's traditional dhow-building industry. A number of hardwood trees, particularly good for boats, grow in this area (or at least did grow here, until they were chopped down to make into boats). Generations of skilled craftsmen have worked on the beach outside the village, turning planks of wood into strong ocean-going vessels, using only the simplest of tools. It is a fascinating place to see dhows in various stages of construction, but do show respect for the builders, who are generally indifferent towards visitors, and keep out of the way. Most do not like having their photos taken (ask before you use your camera), although a few have realised that being photogenic has a value, and will reasonably ask for payment. Fishing continues to employ many local men, and it's magical to watch the local fishing boats bobbing in the sparkling waves of the morning, and then set out to sea in the late afternoon. There can be as many as 40 going out at once, their distinctive lateen sails silhouetted against the blush evening sky – it's probably been unchanged for centuries. Early in the morning, around 06h00, they return with their catch to the beach fish market. The spectacle is worth the early start, but if you don't make it, there's a smaller re-run at around 15h00 each day. Like the east coast, Nungwi's other key marine industry centres on its seaweed. Local women tend this newly introduced crop on the flat area between the beach and the low-tide mark. The seaweed is harvested, dried in the sun and sent to Zanzibar Town for export. Nungwi afforded us some wonderful photographic opportunities to capture the Milky Way, boat builders in action and the endless beaches. The varying weather patterns allow for some seriously dramatic skies, the clouds sometimes have a greenish tinge to them, at first I thought this was error in my editing, but discovered this to be the norm. A guided walk through the village afforded some wonderful candid shots of children and adults, it did however cost a few US Dollars or local Tanzanian Shillings per shot or group shot, but was the only secure way of producing the goods. Being a Muslim culture, photography is an issue. Permission is a MUST! The only other way around this is to shoot from the hip and hope you get your shot, this must be done prudently or discreetly. A visit to the local spice plantations near Kizimani was extremely informative! The Zanzibari idea of farming is nothing like the Western Mind has in mind. What appears like a jungle opens up before your eyes under your guides direction, from vanilla which has to be individually hand-pollinated as there are no bees to do the job, ylang-ylang, cardamon, ginger, pepper, cinnamon, lemongrass, nutmeg, cloves, fresh young coconut to quench your thirst, unusual citrus fruits, starfruit, jackfruit and even the iodine tree if you get injured all come to life when you begin to see with the Zanzibari eye. There is even the "lipstick" tree! The villager who climbs the coconut tree has to sing on his climb and decent, to warn others below (sometimes 20m or more high) that he is picking coconuts. A falling coconut will surely kill you if it falls on your head! We experienced a Zanzibari meal in the village using fresh spices and fruits we had just seen. Spices were also for sale after the tour, were we also had the chance to individually taste fresh fruits. Their hospitality was really special. Another memorable event was a sunset cruise on a traditional dhow, using a small engine to get us to our furthest destination, the return was by wind and sail. There are many tour operators, either at the hotels or locals all looking to make a Dollar off the average 1 000 000 tourists that visit annually. Locals are quite happy to try sell you their wares; from bracelets, keyrings, henna tattoos to a village walk. Some guides are quite dodgy, others more reliable; in this case we used The Three Brothers on this sailing excursion. It was amazing to watch the boatman build the boats, they use cotton wedged between the beams of wood as glue, the wood gets wet, swells and compressors against the cotton, making a watertight seal. Actually sailing these boats was exciting! Their navigation skills have been passed down from generation to generation; they don’t use a compass or GPS! Our sunset cruise took us towards the islands of Popo and Tumbatu near Kendwa beach. Stone Town Zanzibar Town, on the western side of the island, is the heart of the archipelago, and the first stop for most travellers. It is divided into two halves by Creek Road, once a creek that separated Stone Town (Mji Mkongwe) from ‘The Other Side’ or Ng’ambo, where a small community of slaves once lived and which now accommodates the growing new city with its offices, apartment blocks and slums. During the colonial period, before the development of towns such as Dar es Salaam, Nairobi and Mombasa, Zanzibar Town was the largest settlement in the whole of east Africa. The streets are, as they should be under such a sky, deep and winding alleys, hardly twenty feet broad, and travellers compare them to the threads of a tangled skein. Richard Burton, British explorer (1857) If Zanzibar Town is the archipelago’s heart, Stone Town is its soul. Stone Town, was constructed during the 19th century and remains largely unchanged, it is also a UNESCO World Heritage site. Labyrinths of narrow alleys lead to palaces, mosques and old Arab houses; tiny shops sell dotted tinga-tinga paintings, Zanzibari clocks and heavily adorned chests. The early-morning market on Creek Road is fabulous, as determined Zanzibaris haggle over fragrant spices, exotic fruit and enormous fish. Walk through its alleyways overhung with wooden balconies and faces from every shore of the Indian Ocean and you’ll easily lose yourself in centuries of history, where different cultures collide. Each twist and turn brings something new, be it a school full of children chanting verses from the Quran, an abandoned Persian bathhouse or a coffee vendor with his long-spouted pot fastened over coals. Then there are the ghosts. Stone Town was host to one of the world’s last open slave markets and stories of barbaric cruelty still strike at the conscience. While the best part of Stone Town is simply letting it unfold before you, it’s worth taking one of the recommended tours to really connect with local residents and appreciate its richly textured history. It is the largest town in the archipelago as the being capital, Stone Town, located in the middle of the west coast of Unguja, the main island. The town was named for the coral stone buildings that were built there largely during the 19th century, on the site of a very old fishing village. There are over 16,000 people in the town today, and over 1,700 recorded buildings. Tall houses line narrow alleyways set in a confusing maze radiating out from the centre towards the sea. The streets are too narrow for cars but not, unfortunately, for bicycles and even motorbikes, so be careful! Life is lived very much as it was in the past and the many mosques’ muezzin calls can be heard echoing above the narrow streets five times daily. The architecture is Arabic, which means the walls are very thick, the houses tall and with square and simple facades. Many of the buildings have a central courtyard going up through all the floors, giving ventilation, much like Old Dubai. Zanzibar is well known for its infamous door carvings. Decoration has been added, usually by Indian craftsmen, in the form of wooden balconies and carved doors and stairways. Some of the doors have brass studs which originate in India, where they were used to protect buildings against elephants. The oldest, simplest and most traditional doors have horizontal lintels, as seen in Oman and Arabia generally; later doors have rounded tops and this style shows Indian design influence – many of the builders and craftsmen used in building Zanzibar were from the sub-continent. There are varying motifs in the carving: dates, fish, chains, flowers, lotus, Arabic texts and many more. There are 51 mosques, whose muezzin cries vie with each other at prayer time, as well as 6 Hindu Temples and a Catholic as well as an Anglican Cathedral in this multi-ethnic town. There are many burial places around the outskirts, with interesting headstones and graves, and some important graves in the town itself, usually of religious leaders of the past. On the waterfront, near the Old Dispensary, is an old Fig tree known locally as the Big Tree. It is quite visible from the harbour and is seen in many old photographs. The shaded area underneath it is currently used as a workshop for men building boats. It's a good place to find boat pilots to charter a cruise to Prison Island or Bawe Island. Just opposite is a good beachfront restaurant, known as “Mercury’s”. The second train in East Africa was completed in Zanzibar in 1905 and operated under the name of the Bububu line. It travelled from Bububu village to Stone Town, only 8 km away. It was used mostly for transporting people. Zanzibar was the first country in East Africa to introduce the steam locomotive. Sultan Bargash bin Said had a seven mile railway constructed from his palace at Stone Town to Chukwani in 1879. Initially the two Pullman cars were hauled by mules but in 1881 the Sultan ordered a 0-4-0 tank locomotive from the English locomotive builders Bagnall. The railway saw service until the Sultan died in 1888 when the track and locomotive were scrapped. Fifteen years later (In 1905) the American Company Arnold Cheyney built a seven mile line from Zanzibar Town to the village of Bububu. It was notorious for its ability to set fire to property and the surrounding country side but it ran for twenty-five years until closed in 1930. The Bububu Railway plied six or seven times a day to Zanzibar Town. The service was extremely popular and largely used by the native population. A special first-class coach was run for the benefit of those passengers from steamers who wish to obtain a glimpse of the island. The railway traversed some of the narrowest streets of the city, and it was a constant source of wonderment how passers-by escaped being run over. European residents in Zanzibar regard the railway with an amused tolerance. During the railway construction the Americans undertook the task of installing electrical power lines along the track. Wherever the rails were placed, metal poles were installed and power lines strung overhead. By 1906, long before even London obtained them, Stone Town had electric street lights. In 1911, the railway was sold to the Government, and by 1922 the passenger service ceased. As roads improved and motor vehicles on the island increased, its popularity diminished. With the improvement of the port the railway was used for the haulage of stone which was used to reclaim the seafront. Today much of the old track bed has been built on however train enthusiasts can still see the remains of the railway’s bridges and embankments close to the main road to Bububu. Kiswahili is a language that developed along the East African Coast and incorporates words from all the nations around the Indian Ocean and the Arabian Gulf. It was originally written in Arabic script to spell the words phonetically, until Edward Steere, the Bishop who oversaw the building of the Anglican Cathedral on the site of the old slave market, wrote an English-Swahili dictionary in the Roman alphabet. The slave trade created wealth which in turn led to the construction of palaces, mosques and many fine houses. Discovering the architectural gems hidden along the tortuous maze of narrow streets and alleyways that wind though Stone Town is part of the town's magic and mystery for many visitors. Aside from the souvenir tinga-tinga painting and beaded jewellery, it's a scene virtually unchanged since the mid-19th century, when it was described by Burton. The best way to explore Stone Town is on foot, but the maze of lanes and alleys can be very disorientating. To help you get your bearings, it is useful to think of Stone Town as a triangle, bounded on two sides by sea, and along the third by Creek Road. If you get lost, it is always possible to aim in one direction until you reach the outer edge of the town where you should find a recognisable landmark. Although most of the thoroughfares in Stone Town are too narrow for cars, when walking you should watch out for old bicycles and scooters being ridden around at breakneck speed! It's also useful to realise that thoroughfares wide enough for cars are usually called roads while narrower ones are generally referred to as streets. Hence, you can drive along New Mkunazini Road or Kenyatta Road, but to visit a place on Kiponda Street or Mkunazini Street you have to walk. When looking for hotels or places of interest, you should also note that most areas of Stone Town are named after the main street in that area: the area being referred to as Kiponda Street or Malindi Street, instead of simply Kiponda or Malindi. This can be confusing, as you may not be on the street of that name. But don't worry: at least you're near! Stone Town afforded us some wonderful photographic opportunities to capture the soul of the city, the lifeblood of the people and the pulse of life, in its eclectic East African way. There are two types of doors, those ordained with roses or flowers which are arched, are of Indian decent, the others are Arabic which are square shaped. This is a hallmark of the old city, the Zanzibari Doors. Another interesting observation was the water pipes of most buildings run outside the buildings along with the power supply all at the same height in a spider web maze; usually at first floor level. Very few buildings are painted smartly, I had to ponder upon this; one of the most feasible answers were the regular rain showers that are to be had, when would the paint dry? There are many things to see either in the town or a trip on a dhow will find you on a small island - Prison Island (Changu) where the slaves were quarantined prior to being shipped off. The Cathedral was under renovation and repair, there were limited photographic opportunities there due to that. Constructed in the 1870s by the Universities’ Mission to Central Africa (UMCA), this was the first Anglican cathedral in East Africa. It was built on the site of the old slave market, the altar reputedly marking the spot of the whipping tree where slaves were lashed with a stinging branch. It’s a moving sight, remembered by a white marble circle surrounded by red to symbolise the blood of the slaves. The driving force behind the construction of the cathedral was Bishop Edward Steere (1874–82), but the inspiration was David Livingstone, whose call to compassion the missionaries answered in 1864 when they settled on the island. One of the stained-glass windows is dedicated to his memory, while the crucifix is made from the tree that grew where his heart was buried in the village of Chitambo in Zambia. Services are still held at the cathedral on Sunday mornings, although at the time of our visit, the cathedral was being restored. The slave holding cells or chambers are a reality, and a macabre reminder of the hardships and horrible atrocities they had to endure under their masters. Although nothing of the old slave market remains, some 15 holding cells are located beneath the Anglican Cathedral and St Monica’s Hostel. Two of them, beneath St Monica’s, are open to the public and offer a sobering glimpse of the appalling realities of the trade. Dank, dark and cramped, each chamber housed up to 65 slaves awaiting sale. Tiny windows cast weak shafts of sunlight into the gloom and it’s hard to breathe even when they’re empty. There is barely sufficient head room to be seated in a foetal position in these chambers. The Slave Memorial in the garden was sculptured by Swedish artist Clara Sornas in 1997-1998, which depicts five slaves standing in a pit below ground level. The poignant figures emerge from the rough-hewn rock and thus appear hopelessly trapped, shoulders slumped in despair. Around their necks they wear metal collars from which a chain binds them. It’s a disturbing and haunting sight. The mood and brokenness, vacant and empty, sunken stares of the five slaves is well captured and cast in stone, this can be easily seen at the monument besides the Cathedral. A few places of interest to visit are the House of Wonders, Freddie Mercury House, Slave Market and the Darajani Market where spices, foods, meat and fish can be bought. No matter where you travel, one of the best ways to experience local life is to explore the local fresh market. Located just on the edge of the ancient lanes of Stone Town is Darajani Market, one of the central markets in Zanzibar. Markets are not only where things are sold and traded, but they are also where people congregate to socialize, meet friends, and eat. Though the market sprawls outside of the main building and throughout the surrounding lanes and side streets, the original building (pictured) that houses the small indoor section was built in 1904. The meat section, which mostly includes beef and goat, is not the best smelling place in the market, but you should definitely take a quick stroll through it; there are plenty of flies around, I would also say a strong stomach is needed for the queasy visitor. A plethora of fish is also to be found, many types, I did not recognise. If you fortunate enough, when the fish lands, you can witness a fish sale or auction. Fish are auctioned in loud voices in their respective areas. It’s hot, heaving and entertaining. Photographing under the market canopy can be quite challenging, as the light conditions are difficult, often a filtered light or colour cast is thrown, as the locals use various canvases to provide shade and relief from the tropical climate. It is also quite challenging to capture images of the locals in the tight busy market, best done discreetly, and or with permission, I recommend a zoom lens for this task. The House of Wonders or Palace of Wonders is a landmark building in Stone Town, Zanzibar. It is the largest and tallest building of Stone Town and occupies a prominent place facing the Forodhani Gardens on the old town's seafront, in Mizingani Road. This large, white building dominates the waterfront area of Zanzibar Town, and is one of its best-known landmarks. A perfect rectangle, it is one of the largest buildings on the island even today, rising over several storeys, surrounded by tiers of pillars and balconies, and topped by a large clock tower. After more than a century of use as a palace and government offices, it opened in 2002 as the Museum of History and Culture and contains some fascinating exhibits and displays. It's a pity to rush your visit: allow yourself enough time to browse. One needs a few days to explore Stone Town, and the to head out to the resorts, away from the buzz and busyness for a more "relaxed" experience of the rest of the island. Built in 1883 as a ceremonial palace for Sultan Barghash, Beit al Ajaib was designed by a marine engineer, hence the great use of steel pillars and girders in the construction, and located on the site of an older palace used by Queen Fatuma, the Mwinyi Mkuu (ruler of Zanzibar) in the 17th century. In its heyday, the interior of the new palace had fine marble floors and panelled walls. It was the first building on Zanzibar to be installed with electric lighting, and one of the first in east Africa to have an electric lift – which is why, not surprisingly, the local people called it 'Beit el Ajaib', meaning 'House of Wonders'. Next to the Fort, the road runs through a tunnel under a large building that is the island's orphanage. Built in the late 19th century, the building was used as a club for English residents until 1896, and then as an Indian school until 1950. Forodhani Orphanage in Stone Town, was established in 1964 and funded by the government, children, ranging from babies to teenagers live in the echoing halls of this institution located over the Forodhani Gardens. There is a small craft shop on the ground floor opposite the gardens selling pictures and curios made by the orphans and other local artisans. Here, blind craft-workers weave a good range of baskets, rugs and other items. This looks like a very run down building, but what really stands out is the three Afro-Arabic window arches above the tunnel entrance between four green Venetian shutter windows on either side. Looking passed the Fort, one can see the House of Wonders from this building. This was all in all a most rewarding travel photography experience, considering that I have been to both Kenya and Somalia for other work; a very different East African experience. Though pristine beaches are what most people think about when they think about Zanzibar, spending some time walking around the local villages and markets is a fantastic way to learn about the culture of Zanzibar and to observe local life as it really is. They are a poor people, yet seem to be happy, they are also a very colourful people that have endured a horrible past; it is quite possible that some grandparents may be the last of the slaves, but will surely have memories of their relatives being slaves. Nothing happens quickly in Zanzibar, the Swahili way is pole pole (porleeh porleeh) translated is slowly-slowly, to which they may add, like the tortoise. Always a friendly greeting jambo, asanthe sana and hakuna matata is what you can expect from the locals. There, life is like the ebb and flow of the tides, the skies will cry in the day and dry its tears over the azure shores and lush vegetation, blush the most amazing colours at nightfall, soon after, twinkle with the brightest of stars in the expanse of the mesmerising Milky Way, only to do it all over again the very next day. Zanzibar is definitely a destination to revisit. Historical information resourced from various sources on the internet. ZANZIBAR Allow the slide show to proceed on its own, or mouse on or off the image to pause or proceed on with the show. One can also make use of the navigation buttons. Please be advised this is a large slideshow, image transitions are fairly short. Images can also be viewed individually and in full size elsewhere on my website under the respective themed pages. If you have any questions or comments feel free to post in the comments below. I would really like to hear from you, and the experiences you may have had, both good and bad in Zanzibar.
How To Fly With Photography Gear So, you're off to photograph your dream destination and you have to travel there by plane. My condolences. Things used to be easier and simpler. Today traveling with cameras on planes results in silly, idiotic, restricting, and inconveniencing encounters with various people vested with too much authority and too little common sense, who simply cant think out of the box when it comes to photographic gear. This is definitely something that needs to be addressed by all airlines. It is my hope that this blog, on how to fly with photography gear will help, as I am experiencing these issues first hand. I have researched various websites to obtain this information. What is one of your worst nightmares as a national or international professional photographer? Losing your luggage. It happens all the time, unfortunately. Not just one airline in particular; almost all airline companies utterly fail in customer support when it comes to understanding professional photographers and the importance or value of their equipment or job. I'm not going to tackle airline atrocities, Johannesburg Airport is well known for luggage theft, and more recently two people stowed away on a BA flight to London. Instead, I'm going to concentrate on just one thing: carry-on weight. Under no circumstances am I ever ever ever going to check my camera or computer gear. It’s like waving good-bye to it as I feel like I’d never see it again. If I have to check my camera gear, then I’m not going! Most airlines allow you one piece of carry-on luggage such as a roller-board suitcase and a personal item such as a backpack, briefcase or ladies handbag. For me that means a backpack. I have taken some time to review most of the airlines that depart from South Africa to international destinations, to see where we stand on how to fly with photography gear; in general, it is not very clear when it comes to photography gear. It has everything to do with weight or size! On the odd occasion, it actually mentions what size camera can be taken, and nowhere do they say we can be exempt from having our gear with us. There are options on some airlines to book an extra seat, where you gear can travel as a passenger next to you! What International Airlines Say About Carry-On Air France International Flights Flights within metropolitan France Regardless of the selected fare, you can transport one baggage item and one accessory, up to a total combined weight of 12 kg / 26 lb. Are you connecting to an international flight? The baggage allowance for your international flight applies to your entire trip. Hand baggage allowance To be accepted in the cabin, your hand baggage must not exceed the following dimensions: 55 x 35 x 25 cm / 21 x 13 x 9 in (including pockets, wheels and handles). Please note: a suit bag is considered as one standard baggage item. Accessories In addition to your hand baggage, you may also transport 1 accessory.This includes your choice of one of the following: Handbag Notebook computer Camera, etc. Air New Zealand Cabin baggage allowance Customers may take one piece of cabin baggage onboard with a maximum weight of 7kg (15lbs) Business Class, Premium Economy* & connecting Business Class customers, Air New Zealand Elite**, Gold and Star Alliance Gold customers are permitted to carry two pieces weighing a maximum combined total of 14kgs (30lbs), with one of those items weighing up to 10kgs To help our staff recognise your higher cabin baggage allowance, please use your Status name bag tag on your heavier cabin baggage item In addition to your allowance, you may also carry onboard one small personal item such as a handbag, duty free bag or slim line laptop bag, which must be able to fit under the seat in front of you As a safety precaution, all cabin baggage must be able to fit in the overhead lockers or under the seat in front of you. Each item should therefore not exceed total linear dimensions (length + width + height) of 118cm (46.5") Cathay Pacific You are allowed to carry at least one piece of carry-on baggage for free (depending on the class you travel). Duty-free items are included in cabin baggage allowance. You may also carry other necessary items such as a small camera or a walking stick on board. Hand-carry items of value, such as keys, artwork, cameras, money, jewellery, precious metals, silverware, medicines, drug, dangerous goods, commercial goods or samples, personal electronic devices and odd-sized articles, etc. Carry-on baggage For all classes, each passenger (except an infant) can bring a free baggage allowance of one cabin bag not exceeding 56x36x23cm (22x14x9 in) in size. These dimensions include wheels, handles and side pockets. The total weight entitlements of your cabin baggage are as follows: Class Weight First Class 15kg (33 lbs) Business Class 10kg (22 lbs) Premium Economy Class 7kg (15lbs) Economy Class 7kg (15lbs) + For all travel classes, duty-free items are included in your cabin baggage allowance. ++ If you are travelling in two classes on one journey (split class or mixed class travel), you can enjoy the greater allowance for the whole journey. Croatia Airlines Hand baggage allowance Economy Class passengers: 1 piece max. weight 8 kg total sum of dimensions up to 115 cm (55x40x20) Business Class passengers: 2 pieces max. weight per piece 8 kg total sum of dimensions up to 115 cm (55x40x20) or 57x54x15cm if it is a foldable garment bag In exceptional cases, depending on the type of aircraft, hand baggage allowance for Business Class passengers can be restricted to 1 piece. Heavy hand luggage must be stowed under the seat in front, except on seat rows on which there is an emergency exit. What to pack? Each passenger may additionally take: 1 personal item with a maximum size of 40x30x10 cm (16x12x4 in) into the passenger cabin (e.g. 1 ladies hand bag or 1 laptop or 1 shoulder-strapped bag) Emirates Generally, the amount of cabin baggage you may bring depends on which service class you are flying. First Class and Business Class customers are permitted two pieces of carry-on baggage: one briefcase plus either one handbag or one garment bag. The briefcase may not exceed 18 x 14 x 8 inches (45 x 35 x 20cm); the handbag may not exceed 22 x 15 x 8 inches (55 x 38 x 20cm); the garment bag can be no more than 8 inches (20cm) thick when folded. The weight of each piece must not exceed 7kg (15lb). Economy Class customers are permitted one piece of carry-on baggage, either a handbag or laptop bag, that may not exceed 22 x 15 x 8 inches (55 x 38 x 20cm) and must weigh no more than 15lb (7kg). Note: For customers boarding in India, the size of carry-on baggage may not exceed 45.3 total inches or 115cm (length + width + height). Duty free purchases such as liquor, cigarettes and perfume are also permitted in reasonable quantities for all service classes. Sports equipment and musical instruments are subject to the same size and weight restrictions as other forms of cabin baggage. However, it is possible to transport these items on a separate, paid-for seat in the cabin. Please note that certain conditions and limitations may apply when transporting musical instruments. All cabin baggage must fit either under the seat in front of you or in one of the overhead lockers. Baggage may not be placed behind your legs, in the aisles or in front of emergency exits. Etihad Carry-on items In addition to your hand baggage allowance, the following are carry-on items and can be taken on the flight for free: Handbag, pocket book or purse Overcoat, wrap or blanket Umbrella or walking stick Small camera and / or binoculars A reasonable amount of reading matter for the flight Infant food for the journey Infant carry basket / carry cot Braces or prosthetic devices (provided the guest is dependent on them) Briefcase or portable PC which is not being used as a container for transportation of articles, regarded as baggage (laptops should not be activated without flight crew knowledge) Mobile phone Cameras, film, lighting and sound equipment may be accepted as checked baggage. If in excess of checked baggage allowance, you will be charged the applicable excess baggage rate. Due to their bulky nature, we advise you to make prior arrangements with the station of departure. Hand baggage (carry-on) allowance Each item must not exceed dimensions of 111 cm (40 x 50 x 21). When an infant is carried in either a carrycot or car seat, the following items may be carried free of charge provided the total weight (excluding the infant) does not exceed 5kg: bedding, napkins, feeding bottles and sufficient food for the journey. Flights First Class Business Class Economy Class Infant All destinations 2 bags total of 12kg 2 bags total of 12kg 1 bag up to 7kg 1 bag up to 5kg Icelandair Saga Class Two carry-on bags per person, in addition to one small personal item, such as small hand bag or laptop. The maximum weight allowed for each carry-on bag is 10kg (22lbs). Economy Comfort Two carry-on bags per person, in addition to one small personal item, such as small hand bag or laptop. The maximum weight allowed for each carry-on bag is 10kg (22lbs). Economy Class One carry-on bag per person, in addition to one small personal item, such as small hand bag or laptop. The maximum weight allowed for your carry-on is 10kg (22lbs). Carry-on bag dimensions The size of your hand luggage should not exceed 55x40x20 cm. Please note that any bag or item must fit easily into the overhead compartment or under the seat in front of you. Kenya Airways Hand Baggage Passengers Free Allowance Accessories Premier World 2 pieces (max L55xW25xH35cm each) + 1 Accessory Total weight max 12kg -Handbag-Briefcase-Laptop-Camera bagOr any other item smaller or of identical size Economy 1 piece (max L55xW25xH35cm each)+1 AccessoryTotal weight max 12kg -Handbag-Briefcase-Laptop-Camera bagOr any other item smaller or of identical size Extra Seat for Cabin Baggage, Cargo, Mail (CBBG) or Passenger Comfort (EXST) Extra seat(s) can be booked for passenger’s comfort (e.g. leg rest, etc.) or for stowage of cabin baggage (e.g. valuables, diplomatic pouch, fragile items, musical instruments, paintings etc.) Baggage Allowance for an Extra Seat Purchased Acceptance Conditions i. Extra seat(s) shall be requested and paid for in advance. Approval is needed from Revenue Management. ii. The normal applicable free checked baggage allowance applies for every extra seat booked (EXST). For example, 1 passenger books 2 extra M-Class seats for comfort. The total checked baggage allowance for this passenger will be 3 x applicable free baggage allowance. iii. If a seat is used to place items on (CBBG), these items may not weigh more than 46 kg per seat. iv. (The kilos placed on a seat, shall not be deducted from the total free checked baggage allowance.) Items placed on a seat should be adequately packed to prevent damage. v. Trunks and crates are not allowed as CBBG. vi. Items must be stored on a seat and be properly secured by a safety belt or restraint device having enough strength to eliminate the possibility of shifting under all normal anticipated flight and ground conditions. vii. The item shall be adequately packaged or covered in a manner to avoid possible injury to passengers and cabin crew members. viii. Extra seats for stowage of items shall not be issued on the emergency exit row. ix. The items carried on the extra seat shall not restrict access to or use of any required emergency or regular exit, or aisle(s) in the cabin. x. The items stowed shall not obscure any passenger’s view of the seat belt sign, no smoking sign or required exit sign. xi. Items may not cause disturbance to other passengers. xii. Both passenger and CBBG shall be booked in the same class of travel. The items shall be limited to the sizes stipulated below; Aircraft Type Maximum Allowable size of items stowed on Extra Seat B777,B787 48X73X40 (width x height x side length) CMS B737 Series 48X60X40 (width x height x side length) CMS E190/E170 43X60X40 (width x height x side length) CMS KLM Hand Baggage Dimensions, number of bags and weight You make the following as hand baggage: Travel class Number & dimensions Weight restriction Permitted accessories Economy Class 1 bag measuring 55x35x25 cm (21.5x13.50x10 inch) (lxwxh)* Your hand baggage inc. accessories, may not exceed 12 kg (26 lbs) 1 of the following: handbag, briefcase, camera, small laptop or 1 other item of similar or smaller size Business Class 1 bag measuring 55x35x25 cm (21.5x13.5x10 inch) (lxwxh)* and 1 bag smaller than 45x35x20 cm (18x13.5x8 inch) (lxwxh)** Your hand baggage incl. accessories may not exceed 18 kg (40 lbs) 1 of the following: handbag, briefcase, camera, small laptop or 1 other item of similar or smaller size * The sum of the dimensions may not be greater than 115 cm (45 inches), including wheels and handles. ** Exception for World Business Class passengers: on flights from India you may only carry one item of hand baggage. You may check in a second hand bag free of charge. Lufthansa Carry-on Baggage on Lufthansa The number of permitted items of carry-on baggage* is determined by the service class booked. Dimensions for carry-on baggage: 55 x 40 x 23 cm; for foldable garment bags: 57 x 54 x 15 cm. Lufthansa will transport larger items of carry-on baggage in the hold as part of your free baggage allowance. If the permitted free baggage allowance is exceed in terms of number, dimensions and/or weight, the flat fee for excess baggage will be charged. Personal documents, medicines, valuables, mobile phones and laptops should be carried in cabin carry-on baggage. The following items may only be carried in the cabin and not in the cargo hold: fuel cell systems and spare fuel cell cartridges, portable oxygen concentrators, safety matches and lighters as well as spare batteries (lithium metal, lithium ion) and electronic cigarettes. Qantas Restrictions on Cabin Baggage Some items cannot be carried in the cabin of the aircraft. These include weapons, restraining devices, knives and sharp tools or cutting implements such as scissors and screwdrivers and some sporting goods such as bats and clubs. The list of prohibited items may vary depending where you board an aircraft. Please check with us or your Authorised Agent prior to travel. You may be able bring some of these items as Checked Baggage (but see 7.6). If you try to include a prohibited item in your Cabin Baggage, we may take it from you. We do not accept any responsibility for items which we refuse to carry as Cabin Baggage and which are not carried as Checked Baggage. You are responsible for your personal items that are in your care and control. X-ray equipment used at Australia airports does not damage:+ Computer CPU's or memory; computer storage media such as magnetic disks (hard drives, floppy disks etc)and other devices (CDs); cameras (including digital cameras with electronic storage media) or photographic film below asa 1000 (developed or undeveloped). Enhanced security measures for passengers flying to the UK & US The UK Government has introduced a range of additional security measures at the boarding gate for flights into the UK. Customers travelling on flights from Dubai to the UK who are randomly selected to undergo additional screening may be required to remove footwear and from hand luggage all electrical equipment including portable electronic devices such as laptops, iPads, smart phones, and cameras larger than a standard mobile phone and power up the device to demonstrate functionality. Passengers are advised to ensure that their electronic devices are charged before travel. Devices that do not power on may not be permitted onboard the aircraft. Your Carry-on Baggage must: fit under the seat in front of you or in an overhead locker (musical instruments must be placed in an overhead locker. See the Musical Instruments information below); not exceed the Carry-on Baggage allowances; and not include any Dangerous Goods unless permitted for carriage. If your baggage meets the above requirements, but we reasonably believe that it is not safe for your baggage to be carried as Carry-on Baggage, we may require you to check it in. Qatar Airways Hand baggage allowances First Class Business Class Economy Class Two pieces, not to exceed a total weight of 15kg (33lb) Two pieces, not to exceed a total weight of 15kg (33lb) One piece, not to exceed 7 kg (15lb) Maximum hand baggage dimensions are 50x37x25cm (20x15x10in) each In addition to your hand baggage allowance, you can also carry personal items such as one ladies handbag or one small briefcase, one coat, cape or blanket, one umbrella, one pair of crutches or walking stick, one small camera or binoculars, limited reading material, an infant’s carrying basket, and duty-free items purchased on the day of your flight. Laptops and laptop bags have to fit within your hand baggage allowance. Swiss Hand Baggage Regulations There is limited space on board for hand baggage. There are clear regulations to ensure that you travel safely and in comfort. Your hand luggage must be stored in the overhead locker or under the seat in front of you. Please observe the maximum permitted dimensions and weight for hand baggage. SWISS Economy 1 x max. 8 kg Circumference max. 55 x 40 x 23 cm SWISS Business 2 x max. 8 kg Circumference max. 55 x 40 x 23 cm SWISS First 2 x max. 8 kg Circumference max. 55 x 40 x 23 cm A foldable garment bag with the maximum dimensions of 57 x 54 x 15 cm can also be accepted as hand baggage. Any baggage items that exceed the maximum dimensions in the table must be checked in. Other permitted items Adults and children with their own seats may also take the following on board: Handbag, laptop bag or shoulder bag (max. 40 x 30 x 10 cm) Child's seat One pair of crutches, arm or leg splints, other kinds of prostheses Medical equipment Exceptions If smaller aircraft are fully booked, we may have to check hand baggage in at the gate. If we do, it will be for your safety and comfort. Countries such as Italy and the USA have stricter rules regarding hand luggage. Passengers in First and Business Class with a second item of hand luggage must check it in if travelling to those countries. Special rules apply to hand baggage for flights from and within South Africa. Economy Class passengers may take one item of baggage (maximum circumference 56 x 36 x 23 cm, maximum weight 7 kg) and one thin laptop bag with them. Business and First Class passengers may take two items of baggage (maximum circumference 56 x 36 x 23 cm, maximum weight 7 kg) and one thin laptop bag with them. TAM Linhas Aereas Passengers may also check carry-on, as well as regular checked baggage. In either cases, the baggage must comply with LAN regulations. Carry-on Baggage This refers to those personal effects brought onto the airplane by the passenger, free of charge and considered under their custody and their responsibility. Each passenger may carry one piece of hand luggage plus a personal item, subject to space availability on board the aircraft. For safety reasons, if we do not have space available in the cabin, we will carry your baggage in the hold. Pieces allowed Economy Premium Economy - Premium Business 1 Piece of baggage 8 kg (17 lbs) 16 kg (35 lbs) 1 Personal item Purse, laptop or diaper bag. In addition to the above, articles such as jackets, walking sticks, umbrellas, small cameras, binoculars, reading material or a small bag of duty free goods may be carried on provided the passenger keeps them in his or her possession or stows them under the seat in front of the passenger* * Except for emergency exit seats and seats in the first row. TAP Air Portugal Hand Luggage Adults and Children Hand baggage suitable for placing in the closed overhead rack or under the passenger seat which maximum dimensions cannot exceed 115cm - 55x40x20cm. Economy Class: 1 piece up to 8 Kg Executive Class: 2 pieces with a combined total weight of 16 Kg Thai Airways Carry-on Baggage In addition to the checked baggage allowance, each passenger is allowed to hand carry one baggage at maximum length 56 cm (22 inches), width 45 cm (18 inches), thickness 25 cm (10 inches). These dimensions include wheels, handles, and side pockets. Total weight of the carry-on baggage must not exceed seven kg (15 lb). Passengers are required to place the baggage in the overhead compartment or under their own seat. Passengers can bring the following items free of charge : • Handbag/wallet/purse with the maximum length 37.5 cm (15 inches), width 25 cm (10 inches), depth 12.5 cm (5 inches), or the total of three dimensions do not exceed 75 cm (30 inches) with the total weight not exceeding 1.5kgs(3.3lb). Notebooks, or portable personal computers are also applied with this condition. • Walking sticks (crutches) used by elderly passengers, sick passengers, and handicapped passengers • Camera or small binoculars • Infant food Turkish Airlines Cabin Baggage Click to enlarge Cabin Baggage (Hand Baggage) is defined as any baggage of 8 kg and 55x40x23 cm, Each passenger is responsible for his/her own cabin baggage, which is carried at passenger cabin for free of charge. Personal Items are defined as any items, which are carried at passenger cabin for free of charge. Each passenger is responsible for his/her own personal item. Cabin baggage is excluded from free baggage allowance and assessed separately. Free Cabin Baggage Allowance Class of Travel Quantity Maximum Weight Dimensions Business 2 pieces 8 kg (each piece) 55x40x23 cm Comfort Class 1 piece 8 kg 55x40x23 cm Economy Class 1 piece 8 kg 55x40x23 cm Infant Passengers (Aged between 0-2) 1 pieces 8 kg 55x40x23 cm Suit covers (114x60x11 cm) shall be considered as cabin baggage. Duty-free products shall be excluded from the implementation of cabin baggage carriage regulations. Regardless of flight classes and card statuses, the items specified below are considered as "personal items", and will be carried free of charge, provided to be only one (1) piece. Personal Items Symbol Male/Female purses, Small video camera or camera, Bag-type strollers, Tablet, laptop, Umbrella (except for those with sharp tip). In the event that the dimensions and/or weights of personal items reach to the cabin baggage limits, they will be considered as cabin baggage. If the bag-type strollers cannot be placed under the seats or inside the overhead bins and/or they cannot be tied to the seats safely; they will be taken to the cargo deck without claiming any charge Cabin baggage control is carried out at check-in and/or boarding. In the event that the weight of the cabin baggage exceeds the limits during the weight check, performed as accompanied by the passenger; the passenger is required to pay excess baggage fee for the extra weight (weight of cabin baggage - 8 kg). In the event that the weight of the cabin baggage is appropriate to be considered as cabin baggage, however, the dimension of the same exceeds the limits; then the passenger is required to pay excess baggage fee for the whole weight. Passengers, who have completed online/mobile/kiosk check-in (who have not applied to the check-in counter), will be checked for cabin baggage during the boarding process. Therefore we kindly ask our passengers to present her/his online/mobile/kiosk check-in documents. Refusal of Cabin Baggage Carriers reserve the right to refuse cabin baggage in the event that, It is liable to cause damage to property or persons, It is liable to be damaged in the course of the flight, It is inappropriately packaged, Its carriage will constitute a crime under the laws of states of departure, arrival or overflight. It is not fit to be transported by air for reasons of weight, dimensions or composition, It cannot be stowed in overhead lockers or under the seat in front and/or it cannot be strapped securely into a seat. United Airlines Carry-on Baggage As your departure date approaches, you may be thinking about what to pack and whether or not to check a bag. Take a minute to review our carry-on guidelines so you know before you go, and your trip gets off to a smooth start. Please note that there are additional carry-on guidelines for United Express® flights. Each traveler can bring on board one carry-on bag plus one personal item free of charge. To ensure a smooth boarding experience, it's important to make sure that these items will fit into the overhead bin or under the seat in front of you. Carry-on Bag The maximum dimensions for a carry-on bag are 9 inches x 14 inches x 22 inches (22 cm x 35 cm x 56 cm), including handles and wheels. Personal Item The maximum dimensions for your personal item, such as a shoulder bag, backpack, laptop bag or other small item, are 9 inches x 10 inches x 17 inches (22 cm x 25 cm x 43 cm). High-value, Fragile and Perishable Items United recommends that you do not pack high-value, fragile or perishable items in your checked baggage. United will accept such items as carry-on baggage (subject to carry-on baggage allowances) or as checked baggage (subject to checked baggage allowances). If you choose to pack high-value, fragile or perishable items in or as checked baggage in connection with travel within the United States, United is not liable for the loss of, damage to or delay in delivery of such items. For most international travel, United’s liability for destruction, loss, delay or damage to checked and unchecked baggage is limited. Examples of high-value, fragile or perishable items for which United is not liable (in the case of travel within the United States) or for which United’s liability may be limited (in the case of most international travel) include, but are not limited to et al: Backpacks not designed for travel, sleeping bags and knapsacks made of plastic, vinyl or other easily torn material with aluminum frames, outside pockets or with protruding straps and buckles Photographic/cinematographic/audio/video equipment, cameras and related items Virgin Atlantic Little Red (UK domestic) Number of items One Maximum size 23 x 36 x 56 cm (that’s approx. 9 x 14 x 22 inches) Maximum weight 10kg (22 lb) Please note that a garment bag cannot be used as your hand baggage unless it fits the dimensions of the hand baggage allowance. If you’d like to bring one but it exceeds 23 x 36 x 56 cm, it will need to be as additional checked in baggage. If you want to take your laptop onboard, you'll need to place it in your original hand baggage or check your hand baggage in. Please note, you must be able to place your hand baggage in the overhead bins unaided. If you are connecting onto Virgin Atlantic and travelling in Upper Class, you will be entitled to the Upper Class baggage allowance. Virgin Atlantic Little Red flights are operated by Aer Lingus. Economy Number of items One Maximum size 23 x 36 x 56 cm (that’s approx. 9 x 14 x 22 inches) Maximum weight 10kg (22 lb) Please note that a garment bag cannot be used as your hand baggage unless it fits the dimensions of the hand baggage allowance. If you’d like to bring one but it exceeds 23 x 36 x 56 cm, it will need to be as additional checked in baggage. If you want to take your laptop onboard, you'll need to place it in your original hand baggage or check your hand baggage in. Please note, you must be able to place your hand baggage in the overhead bins unaided. Premium Economy Number of items One Maximum size 23 x 36 x 56 cm (that’s approx. 9 x 14 x 22 inches) Maximum weight 10kg (22 lb) Please note that a garment bag cannot be used as your hand baggage unless it fits the dimensions of the hand baggage allowance. If you’d like to bring one but it exceeds 23 x 36 x 56 cm, it will need to be as additional checked in baggage. If you want to take your laptop onboard, you'll need to place it in your original hand baggage or check your hand baggage in. Please note, you must be able to place your hand baggage in the overhead bins unaided. Upper Class Number of items Two Maximum size (each item) 23 x 36 x 56 cm (that’s approx 9 x 14 x 22 inches) Maximum weight (combined) 16kg (35 lb) Maximum weight (individual item) 12 kg (26 lb) In Upper Class, your hand baggage can also include one garment bag, 20cm (8 inches) thick – again, this shouldn’t exceed 12kg in weight. This will count towards your two bag limit. Please note, you must be able to place your hand baggage in the overhead bins unaided. The Upper Class hand baggage allowance also applies to children age 2+. What Southern African Airlines Say About Carry-On Air Botswana Air Botswana operates an all economy cabin and allows per passenger, 23kg checked luggage. Infants not occupying a seat are entitled to a free luggage allowance of 10kg. Air Botswana also accepts only one piece of hand luggage of not more than 7 kg. There are strict weight restrictions in place on any itinerary which includes light aircraft transfers. This is due to the following: • The aircraft are designed with a maximum bodyweight and luggage weight allowance. • Most of the airfields are over 1000 metres above sea level and are located in the tropics, and therefore the permissible aircraft carrying capacity is reduced. • The aircraft have physical space restrictions. Some Important Issues For Air Transfers • Luggage, including camera equipment and hand luggage, is restricted per person travelling on seat rates to 20kg (44lbs). • Only soft bags will be accepted - no wheels, frames or rigid structures can be transported as they physically cannot fit into the aircraft. • The maximum dimensions of the soft bags which can be accommodated are as follows: 25cm (10 inches) wide x 30cm (12 inches) high and 62cm (24 inches) long. • Please keep in mind that the baggage compartments on the light aircraft are only 25cm high (10 inches), so the pilots must have the ability to manipulate the bag into the compartment. • A collapsible wheeled luggage frame/trolley (separate to the bag) is allowed, as long as basic dimensions are similar to that of the bag. • Please inform us in advance if you weigh more than 100kg (220lbs) as additional weight allowance on the aircraft must be purchased for safety and comfort. The costs for this are calculated on request according to specific region and routing, and provides for a maximum of 70kg (154lbs) excess weight. As no formal clothes are needed throughout most of southern Africa, we recommend that luggage is limited to the basics. More formal attire is usually required only when staying in the more prestigious city hotel establishments or on any of the luxury trains. On a wildlife safari, casual clothing is the order of the day. Please refer to the suggested packing list as a guideline. Most safari camps / lodges and hotels provide basic toilet amenities and laundry can usually be done on a daily basis. Excess Luggage If you need to bring luggage in excess of your allowance, you may have the option of buying an extra seat. This "seat in plane" allows for a maximum of 70kg (154 lbs) excess weight, on the proviso that the bag(s) conforms to the dimensions 40 x 40 x 80 cms (16 x 16 x 31 inches); soft bag i.e. no wheels/frame/rigid structures; able to physically fit onto a light aircraft seat; able to be physically secured with one seatbelt; will not impact on the comfort of other guests on the flight. The additional cost of this varies depending on your flight schedule so please contact your agent for further details. On arrival in either Maun or Kasane, you also have the option of sending your excess luggage ahead at an additional cost. If the safari begins in Maun, the excess luggage will be forwarded to Kasane and stored. If starting in Kasane, the excess luggage will be forwarded to Maun for storage. You can then collect this excess baggage at the end of your Botswana trip. We need to know in advance if this service is needed so that arrangements can be made and the transfer can be handled smoothly. Please note that the same dimensions as above apply to this unaccompanied baggage. Should you be starting and ending your safari in Maun, and do not require the excess luggage to accompany you on your trip, arrangements can be made to store this for you in Maun at no extra charge. But guests must ensure that they are in possession of full travel insurance including luggage cover. Air Namibia Carry-on Baggage We are pleased to offer our passengers a generous free hand baggage allowance, which they take onto the aircraft with them. There are size and weight limits that apply – see below: Carry-On Baggage Allowance Passengers Business Class Economy Class All Passengers 2 pieces of hand baggage, max weight 10kg each, max size 55X38X20cm plus 1 Overcoat 1 Umbrella or walking stick 1 Ladies hand bag A reasonable amount of reading material 1 Small camera 1 Small laptop A fully collapsible invalid’s wheelchair and/or a pair of crutches provided that the passenger is dependent on them 1 piece of hand baggage, max weight 10kg, max size 55X38X20cm 1 Overcoat 1 Umbrella or walking stick 1 Ladies hand bag A reasonable amount of reading material 1 Small camera 1 Small laptop A fully collapsible invalid’s wheelchair and/or a pair of crutches provided that the passenger is dependent on them Infants not occupying a seat Free checked baggage allowance will remain 10kg checked baggage 1 piece of hand baggage 1 fully collapsible stroller Free checked baggage allowance will remain 10kg checked baggage 1 piece of hand baggage 1 fully collapsible stroller Fragile & Perishable Items Air Namibia recommends that you do not pack high value, fragile & perishable items in your checked baggage. Air Namibia will accept such items as carry-on baggage (if it adheres to carry-on baggage allowances) and as checked baggage if it adheres to checked baggage allowances. If you choose to pack high value, fragile or perishable items in or as checked baggage Air Namibia is not liable for the loss of, damage to or delay in delivery of such items. Air Namibia’s liability for destruction, loss, delay or damage to checked and unchecked baggage is limited. Examples of high value, fragile or perishable items for which Air Namibia is not liable or for which Air Namibia’s liability may be limited include, but are not limited to: Backpacks not designed for travel, sleeping bags and knapsacks made of plastic, vinyl or other easily torn material with aluminium frames, outside pockets or with protruding straps and buckles Computer hardware/software and electronic components/equipment Items checked in sacks or paper/plastic bags that do not have sufficient durability, do not have secure closures or do not provide sufficient protection to the contents Items checked in corrugated/cardboard boxes, including cardboard boxes provided by Air Namibia, except for items that otherwise would be suitable for transportation without the cardboard box (e.g., bicycle, garment bag) Electronic and mechanical items, including cell phones, electronic games; and other related items Eyeglasses, binoculars, prescription sunglasses and non-prescription sunglasses and all other eyewear and eye/vision devices Photographic/cinematographic/audio/video equipment, cameras and related items Any other similar valuable property or irreplaceable property included in the passenger’s checked or carry-on baggage with or without the knowledge of Air Namibia Perishable items must not violate agricultural rules for the destination country. Perishable items may be packed in hard-sided ventilated containers with a maximum of 5.5 pounds (2.5 kg.) of dry ice. Air Namibia will not accept perishable items packed in Styrofoam coolers or in containers that include wet ice. FlySafair We keep our fares low by excluding the price of a bag so you can travel light and keep your wallet full! Even adding a bag will not break the bank - should you wish to add a bag to your flight this can be selected on our Extra’s page during the flight booking process for only R150 per bag. If you are calling in to make your reservation, please advise our Consultants if you wish to take luggage. Remember that hand luggage is included in our fares. A second and/or subsequent bag/s is subject to a R250 charge per extra bag. A maximum limit of 32kg per bag is allowed for checked in luggage; anything over this will need to be transported as cargo at the passenger’s expense and may not be transported on the same flight as the passenger. All arrangements to transport the bag as cargo will have to be made by the passenger. Extra bags can be accommodated up to four hours prior to flight departure online, costs are as below:- At the airport : R250 per bag payable in cash or by card Call Centre/Website : R250 per bag payable by card Hand luggage weighing in excess of 7 kg per bag or which is too large to fit into the overhead stowage compartments will need to be checked in the hold. Hand luggage maximum size dimensions (56 x 36 x 23cm). Checked-in baggage maximum size dimensions (90 x 75 x 43cm). Kulula Baggage Your kulula flight entitles you to one free checked bag weighing up to 20kg and one piece of hand baggage weighing up to 7kg plus a slimline laptop bag or small handbag. For anything more, you can simply purchase extra bags online at a discounted rate or at the airport. Any bag weighing between 20kg and 32kg will incur a heavy bag fee at the airport.While not all luggage is created equal - all luggage must abide by the baggage rules.Both your checked and hand baggage should not exceed the standard limitations which apply to all passengers, infants, children, and adults alike. Luggage such as sports, musical or medical equipment may require special handling due to their size, shape or fragility. Their policy says the following: Fragile or perishable items must not be packed in baggage, checked into the hold. cameras and other photographic equipment, telescopes and binoculars Mango Their website does not discuss the transportation of photographic gear as hand luggage. However do discuss recreational equipment: Mango transports tennis racquets, surfboards, fishing equipment and golf equipment. Guests can take their tennis racquet on board the aircraft provided there is adequate space in the cabin. The number of surfboards that Mango is able to carry in the cargo hold is subject to the aircraft space availability. Please ensure that fishing equipment is boxed or encased, and that golf equipment is adequately sealed. NEW CARRY-ON BAGGAGE REGULATIONS When you’re packing for your next trip, here’s what you need to know about the newly implemented Carry-on Baggage Regulations which came into effect 2 February 2015. These new regulations are as follows: Economy class carry-ons are restricted to a single piece with a maximum weight of 7 kg and within specified dimensions (36 cm x 23 cm x 56 cm), together with either a handbag and/or a slimline laptop bag. All carry-on baggage exceeding the specifications must be checked in. Multiple carry-on baggage items may no longer be taken on board the aircraft. Outside of carry-on baggage, all other baggage must be checked in. Despite these regulations, Mango Guests can rest assured that we are the only low cost airline in South Africa that allows 20 kg of check-in luggage per Guest without penalties on the number of bags that make up the total weight. In my case, my wife and I flew to Zanzibar just this month; we had our travel agent email their person or manager at Johannesburg International Airport. This is what was agreed upon: The client will need to weigh the camera bag along with the checked-in luggage, any kg’s over the allocated 20kgs, the client will need to pay in the R 45.00 per kg. The camera bag will be marked with a fragile sticker and the bag will be taken on board the plane with the client. The client will then hand over the bag at the door of the aircraft and the bag will be placed in separate hold for fragile items. Upon arrival the client will collect the camera bags before departing the aircraft. The weight of each of our bags was 15kgs for mine, and 10kgs for my wife's, as well as an additional Manfrotto tripod case. Their was no issues at check in. We weren't required upon boarding the plane to hand our gear over to anyone as per email. Upon arrival in Zanzibar, and our exit we had no weight issues during check in; however on both occasions during the scans, they did want to see what was in our camera bags. All in all, we had a pleasant flying experience. SA Airlink The following is classified as hand or cabin baggage: (particularly camera gear) Small camera and/or binoculars Passengers traveling with photographic equipment pertaining to lenses and cameras will be allowed to carry the equipment on board as long as the allowance is within the current hand baggage regulations - total dimensions 115cm and max 8kg. Any other photographic equipment i.e. lighting equipment, tripods, props etc. must be packed in cases or boxes as Checked Baggage. Should the weight and dimensions exceed the allocated 8kg hand luggage allowance, an excess charge will be raised and the passenger will be allowed to carry the equipment pertaining to lenses and cameras to the aircraft. The bag will be tagged with a Sky Check tag and will be placed on the Sky Check Facility for loading into the hold of the aircraft. All passengers travelling with Airlink must advise the airline at least 3 business days prior to departure that they will be carrying photographic equipment. South African Airways Hand Luggage Information For your own safety and comfort, it is important to be aware of what you can and cannot bring on board before you check in. Hand luggage allowance Sports equipment & musical instruments Restricted items Hand luggage allowance The amount of hand luggage you may carry depends on which service class you are flying. Travel Class Max Weight Per Piece Max Dimensions Per Piece Business Two pieces: 8kg (18lb) each 56cm (L) 36cm (W) 23cm (H) Economy One piece not exceeding 8kg (18lb) 56cm (L) 36cm (W) 23cm (H) Please note: If your hand luggage does not conform to the size specified, you may be denied entry into the departure area or sent back to check-in. All hand luggage must be of a size that fits under the seat in front of you or in one of the overhead lockers. Hand luggage must not obstruct emergency exits or aisles. One (1) Small personal (E.G. Small purse, small laptop case) is also allowed. Larger laptop bags and standard/bulkier briefcases will NOT be considered a personal item and will count as a normal piece of cabin baggage, which may not exceed one piece in economy and two in premium (subject to dimension & weight restrictions). What Other Options Do We Have? Consider a Basic African Safari Kit: Backpack Two camera bodies (I’ll use D300’s in this illustration; D3 users be prepared for more misery) 200-400mm lens 70-200mm lens 16-35mm lens 50mm lens TC-14E What do you think that weighs (not including filters, cards, or batteries)? Well, we clock in at 8.9kg with a completely stripped ThinkTank Airport Ultralight. In other words, even a very basic kit of gear is going to be over the weight limit at the most restrictive airlines. Sometimes they check, sometimes they don’t. It isn’t that they’re actually concerned about the weight. Because the usual way around the problem is to take items out of your pack and hang them around your neck (camera and lens) or stuff them into your vest pockets (you are wearing a vest with lots of pockets when traveling by plane, aren’t you? If not you should be!). In the above example, just taking one D300 out and putting the 16-35mm lens on it and hanging that around my neck gets me just under the weight limit. And they’ll let you walk on board like that, at which time you put the camera back in the bag and put the bag in the overhead. This tends to slow down the plane loading process for no good reason, but I told you the airlines have tunnel vision. So what do you do when you need to travel by plane these days and carry a fair amount of photo gear? Well, here’s some advice in a nutshell: Get the lightest backpack that’ll carry your gear comfortably and that has some padding. The ThinkTank Airport Ultralight is one such bag,which weighs 1.8kg or less but have enough padding to be minimally protective of your gear. The bag has to have padding, otherwise the infamous forced gate check will ruin your day. Don’t overpack the bag. Find another place for your filters, cards, cleaning equipment, and other miscellaneous gear while on the plane. A small hardshell bag that goes in your checked luggage is one possibility. But basically strip out all but the things that have to go in the carry-on. You’d be surprised at how fast all those little extras add weight. Wear a vest. As a starter, put all your batteries into vest pockets until you’re safely on board. Since you pretty much have to carry batteries in your carry-on now under current TSA regulations, a handful of batteries adds weight really fast, and you don’t want that burden in your bag when it’s weighed. Lowepro make a really decent package which is cheaper to purchase at B&H in New York than locally. Have one camera and lens ready to go. If it looks like they’re weighing all carry-ons, pull the camera out and hang it around your neck. The computer goes in your “personal bag.” Almost everywhere you’re allowed a small laptop bag in addition to your carry-on, so make use of that (it’s a good place for those extra cards, too). Rethink your kit. There’s usually a lower-weight alternative that doesn’t sacrifice too much. The 18-35mm f/3.5-4.5 instead of any of the AF-S wide angle zooms, for instance. The 70-300mm VR is half the weight of the 70-200mm VR, so if you absolutely don’t need f/2.8 there’s a big savings right there. Look and act light. Don’t take off your pack in front of airline personnel and then moan and gasp as you try to lift it back onto your back. Stand tall, walk with a spring in your step. Leave the pack on your back as if it weighs nothing. Except at dedicated weigh stations (which unfortunately are appearing with more regularity), no one wants to weigh everything. But they do want to weigh things that look heavy. So don’t look heavy! Candor sometimes works. Once in Kenya, I was trying to head home and both my checked bag and my carry-one were overweight. The ticketing agent weighed my checked bag and sent me out of line to the notorious “we’re going to charge you more per extra kilogram than high-grade caviar” line. When I had paid my toll and came back to the ticket agent, she eyed my backpack and asked “how much does that weigh?” I rolled my eyes and said “you don’t want to know.” She hesitated a moment, but having already having extracted at least one weight penalty on me, she eventually chuckled and said “asanthe” (thank-you) and added “next time you lose some weight.” Be prepared for the infamous Gate Check. There will come a time when the airline gestapo absolutely insist on separating you from your bag. They’ll happily “gate check” it for you. I’ve had more equipment broken when gate checked than in any other situation, plus it is more vulnerable to theft. So make sure you have a padlock for the bag. Bring a big and very visible Fragile sign that can be hung from the carrying handle. Have everything in the bag already wrapped with an additional protective sleeve, if possible. As a last resort remember to remind the airline personnel insisting on the gate check that you’ve got thousands of Rands of fragile equipment in there and would they please acknowledge that they’ll insure it if it gets damaged (they won’t, but sometimes this is enough to convince the agent maybe they shouldn’t force a gate check: see “Candor,” above). Be a frequent flyer or fly a higher class. If you concentrate your flying mileage and work you way up into the higher levels of most airline reward programs, the agents you encounter along the way that can most cause you trouble tend to go easy on you. They know that their livelihood depends upon regular travelers, so they don’t often take their anger out on them (conversely, if they think you’re flying with them for the first and only time, watch out! Indeed, outbound from Africa tends to provoke more weight checks than in-bound). Note how small the plane is. Travel within some countries can often be by very small plane. Flights from Nairobi to the Masai Mara, for instance, are typically on as small as 12 passenger planes (it can be smaller, but most people are flying on SafariLink or one of the larger carriers, and they tend to use 12-36 passenger props). Bush flights in Alaska, internal flights in Botswana and a host of other countries are often on something as small as a Cessna 172. I once flew a Dash 8 to Somalia, there was no space to swing a dead rat in there! Once you get down into the single or dual engine turbo prop realm, things change. Very small planes generally have very critical weight limits for takeoff, and those are even more critical if takeoff or landing at altitude or in heat is involved. If every passenger averaged 300 pounds of total weight, for instance, most Cessna 172’s would be over their safety limit. You actually want these small “airlines” to weigh you and everything you carry: they simply shouldn’t be taking off without an accurate and complete weight check. You just need to be prepared for what will happen when you are weighed and told that you exceed what they can carry. Usually that means that you have to have some of your gear come on a subsequent flight, which means you need to be already packed for that possibility (e.g. know what you absolutely need and have it packed separately from what you can do without for a few hours or even a day). You also need to be prepared to pay for that extra flight and perhaps ready to grease some palms to make sure that your unattended bag gets met by someone and catches up to you. Travel with someone. Share the load between the two of you (or more), that way you know your gear is secure. Hire your gear. As a last resort, if this is financially possible and practical, it may be your only choice! Where To Stow Your Gear Place your bag under your seat. Overhead compartment availability and regulations are just too wildly different to be trusted, in my experience. Your absolute best move, your most powerful ally, is your under-seat bag. Even if you do all your homework and you have an overhead bag that totally fits, you still might find yourself on an over-booked flight with zero room left in the overhead bins. Unfortunately this problem cannot be solved by just arriving super early and being the first person on the plane, because layovers are common and you never know what situation a delay can put you in. Also the boarding procedures may be in rows or groups. So, take advantage of the under-seat “personal item” option. It is by far the most liberal and unregulated option. Yet with the right packing method and the perfect size camera bag, you can easily fit two camera bodies, 2-3 medium or large lenses, a flash, and a laptop. Your absolute minimum set of equipment for getting the job done right, and it fits under your seat which is a space that no flight attendant will ever hassle you about. Extra seat(s) shall be requested and paid for in advance. The normal applicable free checked baggage allowance applies for every extra seat booked (EXST). For example, 1 passenger books 2 extra M-Class seats for comfort. The total checked baggage allowance for this passenger will be 3 x applicable free baggage allowance. If a seat is used to place items on (CBBG), these items may not weigh more than 46 kg per seat. Items placed on a seat should be adequately packed to prevent damage. A Few Other Tips Memory Cards They belong in your pocket. Even as you go through security, they should not leave your sight. I put my card wallet in the same little bowl that you put keys. Luggage can get lost, bags can get stolen or damaged, but your memory cards should never, ever leave your possession. Losing them is losing your hard work, more so if you weren't able to back up your images. Back your images up to the cloud if it is at all possible. Register Your Gear Before Departure The last thing you need is to pay taxes on gear you already own, make the time to call passed customs and complete the relevant paperwork. Know The Airline Legalities and Policies The biggest tip here is that because airlines are not able nor willing to offer insurance for expensive gear, they cannot force you to check equipment of extremely high value. Notice, however, that I didn’t say “force you to check a bag of equipment.” They can still force you to check the bag. Unfortunately, this may mean, worst case scenario, that you literally empty your overhead bag and wear your equipment around your neck onto the plane. It is a known fact that airlines will not cover the losses of photographic equipment if placed in the hold: cameras, lenses and electronics are NOT covered by the airline’s lost or damaged luggage policy, so if at all possible photographic equipment (and computers) should be placed in your carry-on baggage and NOT in your checked baggage. In fact most airlines won’t compensate you for anything that they lose or damage in your checked baggage except for clothing. Be Polite and Professional Contrary to popular belief, “making a scene” isn’t never the best option. Depending on the mood an employee is in, complaining loudly might only dig your grave deeper. As long as you can, be professional and polite even in extremely frustrating situations. I totally understand the “hold your ground / let them know how upset you are” mentality, but sometimes friendly compromise and a personal connection can make a world of difference! If you can speak their language, do so, it has helped me many a time to fly under the radar when I have been overweight with my hand luggage. Contact The Airline Email the airline and see if you can get it in writing that you will be carrying photography gear, the size meets their requirement, however the weight doesn't, can they assist you? If you have any questions or comments feel free to post in the comments below. I would really like to hear how my fellow photographers manage their air travel affairs, and the experiences they have had, both good and bad.
The Law and Street Photography in South Africa This blog has been adapted and shared from here. First the disclaimer: I am not a lawyer, or qualified in any way to give legal advice. This article is the result of my research and is offered for informational purposes only. If in doubt, consult a registered legal practitioner in your area who specialises in this field. What does the law say about photography, and street photography in South Africa, here is the bottom line when it comes to taking photographs in public places in South Africa. In South Africa, any person can take a photograph that includes any other person, without permission. A photographer does not need your permission to take your photograph, if he or she is on public property when he or she does so. It does not matter that you may be on private property at the time, for example, on the upstairs balcony of your home and a person walking past on the public pavement outside, snaps your picture. Privacy Law Seen From a Public Area You have the right to take photos of anyone or anything if it can be seen from a public area. This includes parks, city streets and sporting events or concerts. This also allows for any private property or buildings to be shot from within the public domain. Any person and member of the public is basically wavering their right to anonymity or privacy by appearing in these areas and is therefore fair subject matter for images. "Whoa! Hold on!" I can almost hear you scream. "There must be some exceptions." Yes there are. Members of the public only have rights in a place where privacy is a reasonable assumption. Put your camera away in restrooms, private houses, changing rooms etc. Trespass Laws Once we leave public domain and enter private property we are subject to their rights of admission. Only Restriction The only other restriction on what may or may not be photographed is that specifically placed there by government and covers matters of national security. This usually means military installations and infrastructure and can include police stations, airports, bridges, consulates, embassies, transportation facilities and border crossings. Taking a photograph of any of these is illegal and will likely end you in hot water. The problem in many cities in South Africa, unlike other cities in the world, is, most of the places where members of the public gather, are privately owned. Shopping malls immediately spring to mind and there, photographers are subject to the terms and conditions laid down by the owners or managers of the property. Often this includes a "no photography" condition. Most shopping centres have “no photography’ signage posted at all their entrances and can refuse you permission to enter or ask you to leave. Security guards are within their rights to prevent your taking photographs and ask you to leave but they may not confiscate your equipment, destroy images or detain you in any way. Should you refuse to leave they may bring a charge of trespass against you. It is important to bear in mind many locations that seem to be public places are, in fact, privately owned. Two examples are the V&A Waterfront in Cape Town and Melrose Arch in Johannesburg. It would be prudent if you are doing landscape photography to "meet and greet" the farmer of the lands you wish to photograph; with crime levels and farm murders as they are, you certainly wouldn't want to be shot at whilst shooting a wonderful vineyard scene etc. Okay, so you've shot an awesome image of someone on the street, what are you allowed to do with the image? Fair Use Images of people for personal or "fair use" purposes include: news, satire, works of art and informational or educational purposes. This means you can legally publish the image on your news or photographic arts blog. You can also sell that print as an artwork, without the subject's permission. However, the photographer may not use an image in a way that misrepresents the subject. That is to say you cannot publish the photograph in a context that directly states or implies anything about the subject that is untrue. This would constitute an act of libel and may lead to legal recourse against the photographer. If you plan to use the image for commercial purposes (create an advertising campaign or sell it to a stock-photo agency, for example,) you will require a model release signed by the person photographed. An individual has sole rights to their persona being used for commercial promotion. In a nutshell for street photographers: I have broken no law by making a photograph of you. I am under no obligation to explain to you what I am doing or why I am doing it. I am under no obligation to show you the photograph I have made. I am under no obligation to identify myself to you. The photograph I have made is legally my property. Although I don't do it, I am fully within my rights to continue making photographs of you while you are in conversation with me. If you attempt to physically restrain me from doing so by touching my person, you are breaking the law. If you do not wish to be photographed the only legal way you can prevent it is to move away from the scene. If you threaten me physically you are breaking the law. Judgement A smile and an explanation will diffuse most situations. Showing the subject the image and offering to email it to him or her, goes a long way and will often result in an invitation to take more photographs. But, in the end you need to make a judgement call. Trying to explain your legal rights to three, steroid-addled, bouncers, who insist you delete the photo you shot of them while they stood outside on the pavement, may be an exercise in painful futility. Only you can decide if the photograph is worth the hassle. Copyright Law Copyright only applies to physically manifested work; this can be in the form of a photograph or a digital file. It does not apply to a thought or idea or concept for an image. Whoever ‘reduced such ideas into material form’ will then be the person holding the rights to that work regardless of whether or not it was their concept. The person who holds the rights to an image is therefore its creator, and does not need to be the person responsible for pressing the shutter release on the camera specifically, but rather the person responsible for the artistic input, which includes styling, lighting, sets and composition. Where South African law differs from international law is in the line “commissioned photographs are owned by the commissioner (client)” This means freelance photographers have no rights to their work. This is a contentious issue that may be covered in further articles and forums. But fortunately this issue can be circumvented by mutual agreement even when it takes the form of a verbal agreement. The act allows for negotiation of these default terms, and consequently any agreement negotiated comes under contract law which then overrides the Copyright Law. Copyright is automatic; you do not need to take any action to ensure your photograph is protected by the law. Adding the copyright logo to an image only serves as a reminder that the creator reserves rights on the usage of the image. Secondly it allows interested parties to know who to contact if they want to obtain rights for an image. Marking an image with copyright information should include the copyright owners name, the year the image was first made public or was published, the copyright symbol and which rights are reserved. (These can include all rights being reserved or commercial use, uses other than for educational purposes, print and publication more than a single form of media etc.) Copyright is valid for 50 years from when an image was made public or the first date of publication. Conclusion You can take a photo of anyone, anywhere as the act of taking a photo is not illegal. There are few exceptions which pertain to government installations that carry restrictions. The photographer has to carry out his shoot being mindful not to infringe on others right to privacy, accommodate trespass laws and should be cognisant not to infringe on the copyright of other artworks. Bearing in mind the taking of photos and the publishing of photos are two separate issues. References Streetphotographer Digital Photography Courses McLarens Attorneys Smit and van Wyk Attorneys Photo Secrets If you have any questions or comments feel free to participate in on the comments below; check out my Facebook page and like to receive regular image and news updates.